The culmination of Messiah's mission, 19:45-24:53

3. The Glorification of the Messiah, 23:26-24:53

v] The Emmaus appearance - a message


Two disciples on the road to Emmaus discuss messiah's defeat. As they journey from Jerusalem they are joined by a stranger who explains the scriptures to them. The climax of the story occurs when they reach Emmaus and join together for a meal. It is then that they recognize Jesus and marvel at how excited they were when he "opened the scriptures" to them.


On the road to Emmaus Jesus had explained to two of his disciples that his death was a necessary and ordained means for the Messiah to enter his glory. Therefore, in his death Israel is redeemed and the long awaited kingdom of God realized. The kingdom is not the type of political entity that the disciples had expected, but none-the-less, it has indeed dawned; the new age has begun - "Messiah did redeem Israel and will restore the kingdom to Israel, although it is not the Israel of nationalist definition, and his redemption is not the political victory of current messianic expectation", Ellis.


i] Context: See 23:26-31. The Emmaus appearance, detailing the events surrounding Jesus' meeting with two disciples on the road to Emmaus, is the fifth episode of a series of six dealing with The Glorification of the Messiah, 23:26-24:53.


ii] Structure: This narrative, The Emmaus appearance, presents as follows:

Setting, v13-14;

Jesus joins the travelers, and asks a question, v15-17;

"what are you discussing?"

Cleopas' answers and Jesus responds, v18;

"what things?"

The disciples account for Jesus last days, v19-24;

Jesus' response, v25-27:

"beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them ......"

A village meal together, v28-29;

Jesus reveals himself, v30-31;

The disciples' response, v32;

"were not our hearts burning within us ......?

They report to the Eleven, v33-35.


iii] Interpretation:

The meaning of the cross from all the Scriptures - "Did not the Messiah have to suffer these things and then enter his glory? And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in the the Scriptures concerning himself", ie., starting at the books of the Law, v26-27: We know that the writing prophets were very strong on the notion of a Suffering Servant - a suffering Messiah. Therefore, it is not hard to find textual support for the idea that Messiah must suffer first before ushering in the eternal kingdom. Yet, what about the books of the Law, the first five books of the Old Testament?

In the books of the Law there are no direct references to a coming King, an anointed one of God, who will achieve glory through suffering and humiliation. Yet, in the books of the Law we are introduced to a broad sweep of Biblical theology. Glory, salvation and the kingdom, come through trial and suffering. The first picture of this salvation history is revealed in the story of Noah. In the face of the rejection of his own people, he stands against all odds and constructs an ark in which he and his family are saved through the surging waters of the deep. Suffering and trial leads to glory.

The most representative picture of salvation-history emerges in the life of the people of Israel. Here, the events leading up to the establishment of the historic kingdom of God depict clearly the suffering, humiliation and trial of the descendents of Abraham in their slavery in Egypt and their struggle through the wilderness. The kingdom could only come by leaving Egypt and striking out into the wilderness, there to face the trials and tribulation of the journey to the promised land. This humiliated, suffering people of God, imaged the one who similarly would face a great trial, the trial of the cross. Unlike Israel of old, the messianic son of God would stand the test without cursing God, without doubting or wavering. His suffering would bring the fruit of glory beyond measure.

So, Jesus had a rich source in "all the scriptures" which enabled him to instruct the disciples that "it was necessary for the Messiah to suffer many things and to enter into his glory."


How was it that "Jesus was recognized by them when he broke the bread"? v35, cf., v30-32. The head of a home would normally say the grace over the meal, but here Jesus takes the lead. This may imply that they are staying at an inn, but not necessarily so. In acting as the host, breaking the bread, and saying the words, Jesus is recognized by the disciples. Luke would have us see this recognition as miraculous, a divine initiative, supported by a miraculous disappearance. It has been argued that the oral tradition here has at least been influenced by eucharistic practice in the early church, cf. Jeremias, Eucharistic Words. It is widely accepted that "Luke wants to make the point that the Christians of his day were able to have the living Lord made know to them in the eucharist celebration in a manner that was at least analogous to the experience of the Emmaus disciples", Nolland.

It is certainly possibly that Luke is describing this event in "a liturgical way", Bock, and it is also possible that he is alluding to the feeding of the five thousand and the last supper, but that he is making the point that the Lord is present and known in the Lord's Supper is surely going too far. "The breaking of bread' more likely refers to the common fellowship meal / love feast of the Christian community rather than the more particular Christian Passover Meal / ritual eating and drinking / Lord's Supper. That these two activities were separated early within the history of the New Testament church seems likely from the evidence in Acts. If Luke is crafting a spiritual paradigm here it is surely that Christ is realized in our midst / made real to us in the love of the brotherhood. "Luke affirms that the resurrection of Jesus is to be understood in terms of the fellowship he extends to the Christian community", Danker. This, along with the study of the scriptures, realizes the risen Christ in the midst of his people.


iv] Synoptics:

This narrative is unique to Luke. Commentators note that it is Lukan in style and that the most obvious source for the story is one the disciples who travelled with Jesus on this day.


v] Exposition: A simple verse-by-verse exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 24:13

On the morning of the resurrection Jesus joins two disciples walking from Jerusalem to Emmaus, v13-33: i] Setting, v13-14. Luke tells us that the journey to Emmaus occurs on the day of Jesus' resurrection. On that day two disciples journey to Emmaus, a village not yet identified by archeologists.

en + dat."[that same day]" - on [the same day]. Temporal use of the preposition. "That same day" is th .. mia twn sabbatwn "the first day of the week". Luke is describing the day as the day following the sabbath, or the eighth day, rather than the first day of the week. It is the day which ushers in a new creation because it is the day during which Jesus rose from the dead. Luke touches on this imagery in 9:28. It was an imagery developed by the Fathers, eg. Justin.

ex (ek) + gen. "[two] of [them]" - out of from. Semitic use of the preposition, functioning as a partitive genitive, cf. Zerwick #80. As well as setting this event on the day of Jesus resurrection, Luke has two of Jesus' disciples making the journey, men who had doubted the report of the women and who are struggling to understand the significance of the cross and empty tomb. The implication is that they are not apostles.

hsan poreuomenoi "were going" - were travelling. The imperfect of the verb to-be with a present participle serves to form a periphrastic imperfect construction which probably serves to emphasize the ongoing nature of the action (durative aspect).

h|/ onoma "called" - which name. "On their way to a village called Emmaus", Barclay.

EmmaouV "Emmaus" - This is the only mention of this village by Luke. The identity of the village is disputed, but the important issue is its proximity to Jerusalem .

apecousan (apecw) pres. part. "[about seven miles from Jerusalem]" - being distant, far off [sixty stadia from Jerusalem]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "village", "a village [named Emmaus] which is about seven miles from Jerusalem."


wJmiloun (oJmilew) imperf. "[they] were talking" - were speaking. The imperfect is typically used for speech since it is an ongoing action (durative).

peri + gen. "about" - about, concerning. Expressing reference / respect; "they were in deep conversation, going over all the things that had happened", Peterson.

twn sumbebhkotwn (sumbainw) perf. part. "[everything] that had happened" - [all the thing] happening. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "everything"; "all the things which had happened." "That had occurred", Cassirer.


ii] Jesus joins with the travelers, v15-17: Jesus joins the disciples and asks them what they are discussing. The disciples fail to recognize the stranger.

egeneto ...... kai "-" - Expresses "it came to pass / it happened ........ that [Jesus himself].

en tw/ oJmilein (oJmilew) pres. inf. "as they talked [and discussed]" - This preposition with the articular infinitive forms a temporal clause, contemporaneous time, as NIV; "during their talking and discussing."

suzhtein (suzhtew) pres. inf. "discussed" - argued, debated. Indicating that the discussion is agitated, although probably not heated.

kai "-" - and. Variant.

autoV "[Jesus] himself" - Variant reading; the pronoun here is emphatic so reflective. Evans notes that this resurrection appearance of Jesus is distinctive: i] Jesus enters the scene as a normal person; ii] the disciples do not recognize Jesus, even though it is only a matter of days since they were with him, and this because "their eyes were overpowered."

eggisaV (engizw) aor. part. "came up" - [was travelling with them] having come near. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "was travelling", so temporal. Describing Jesus also coming from Jerusalem and overtaking the disciples to join with them, so not "approached and walked with them", Phillips, but "overtook them and began to walk with them", Junkins.

autoiV dat. pro. "with them" - to them. Instrumental dative, of association / accompaniment.


de "but" - but, and. Here adversative, as NIV.

ekratounto (kratew) Imperf. pas. "they were kept from" - [their eyes] were held back, hindered in action, restrained, grasped, secured forcibly. Probably a divine / theological passive such that the disciples were restrained by divine power from recognizing Jesus. Yet, it is also possible that the language of sight is used to align with faith such that it is their own doubts and fears that have blinded them to the obvious, making the passive an unreflective statement of fact. The use of this word by Luke is probably intentional given that it is necessary to explain why two disciples, who have travelled with Jesus up to the present, are unable to recognize him. The word probably denotes "a mysterious supernatural action of God (here of the risen Lord himself)", Evans. "Something was restraining their vision", Cassirer.

tou mh epignwnai (epiginwskw) aor. inf. "recognizing" - not to recognize. The negated articular infinitive here may form a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that they may not recognize him", or a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that they were not able to recognize him." "They did not recognize who he was", CEV.


tineV "what" - Interrogate pronoun.

antiballete (antiballw) pres. "are you discussing" - you are throwing against = discussing, debating. Although probably not heated, a conflict of opinions is implied in the word, so "debating", although the debate may now be close to an altercation.

proV + acc. "together" - to [one another]. Here expressing association; "with one another."

peripatounteV (peripatew) pres. part. "as you walk along" - [what words these which you are debating with one another] walking along? The participle is adverbial, temporal, "while walking along."

skuqrwpoi adj. "their faces downcast" - [they stood still / stopped] gloomy, downcast / sullen. The adjective serves here as an adverb (adverbial participle, Culy), modal, expressing manner, modifying the verb "they stood"; "so they stopped, with a sullen look on their faces", Cassirer. Marshall suggests that with the verb it forms a verbal phrase; "they were downcast." Given the sharp response in v18, "gloomy" is probably not intended, possibly "angry", but better, "sullen".


iii] Cleopas reacts by asking whether the stranger is the only person in Jerusalem who doesn't know about the crucifixion of Jesus. According to Eusebius, Cleopas was Jesus' uncle, the brother of Joseph, although his identity is not essential to the story.

apokriqeiV (apokrinomai) aor. pas. part. "-" - having answered. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "said", redundant.

onomati (a atoV) dat. "named" - [one] named, called [Cleopas]. Dative of respect / reference.

KleopaV "Cleopas" - The Semitic name is usually Clopas, with the Greek version being Cleopatros. Tradition has it that he was Jesus' uncle, ie. brother of Joseph and that his son Symeon took over the leadership of the Jerusalem church after the death of Jesus' brother James. Eusebius is the source of this tradition, a tradition he draws from the Memoirs of Hegesippus.

paroikeiV (paroikew) pres. "are you [only] a visitor [to Jerusalem] / [the one] visiting [Jerusalem]." - [you alone] living as a stranger / visitor [Jerusalem]. The sense of the question rests on the meaning of this word. Most opt for "visitor", so NIV, but the question could be sarcastic with the word meaning "stranger", "are you such a stranger that .....?"; "are you a man who lives in Jerusalem so much apart from others that you have heard nothing of the things which have been happening there during the last few days?", Cassirer.

kai "and" - and. Probably coordinate, but possibly functioning as a relative pronoun, so "who does not know", Zerwick #455e.

ta genomena (ginomai) aor. part. "[do not know] the things that have happened" - [do not know] the things having happened [in her]. The participle functions as a substantive; "the things which have happened."

en + dat. "in [these days]" - The preposition is functioning adverbially, temporal, giving the sense "recently", TH.


iv] Luke now reveals the content of the gospel through a discussion between the stranger / Jesus and the two disciples. The two disciples relate the events leading up to the resurrection, v19-24. As far as the disciples are concerned, Jesus is a "prophet"; most probably the long foretold prophet like Moses - the Moses-like messiah. Now, with the death of Jesus, Israel's redemption is lost. Of course, the disciples were looking for the redemption of a political Israel, yet Christ's kingdom is not of this world.. It was now the "third day" (rather than three days) and the disciples are left with the unreliable (so they thought) witness of a group of women who claim that an angelic messenger had told them that Jesus is alive.

poia "what things" - what kind of. Interrogate pronoun. "Things" is assumed; "what sort of things happened there in these days?" Culy.

autoiV dat. pro. "he asked" - [and he said] to them [what kind of things].

peri + gen. "about [Jesus of Nazareth]" - [the things] concerning [Jesus of Nazareth]. Reference / respect; "the things with respect to Jesus of Nazareth." The nominalizer, ta, "the things" = the things that happened in Jerusalem. An idomatic technical term = "the history of / the record of past events about", Evans. The phrase "about Jesus of Nazareth" is limited by the following adjectival clause, }oV ..... "who [was a prophet .....]".

Nazarhnou (oV) "Nazareth" - Serving to identify a person by their home town. Useful here for a "stranger / visitor".

egeneto (ginomai) aor. mid. "[he] was" - [who] became. The sense of "became" is "showed / proved himself to be", Plummer.

profhthV (hV out) "a prophet" - a prophet. Standing in apposition to anhr, "a man"; "a man, a prophet." As indicated below, the two disciples properly understand that Jesus is the long promised messianic prophet, like unto Moses, who will serve as Israel's liberator; Jesus is the messiah who will achieve Israel's redemption. So, Luke is not critical of their understanding of Jesus as a prophet. Their problem lies in failing to understand that it was necessary for the messiah to suffer and die and in failing to take Jesus' promise seriously that he wold rise to life on the third day.

en + dat. "[powerful] in [word and deed]" - Here expressing reference / respect; "powerful with respect to ...." The phrase, as a whole, stands in apposition to "a prophet" and serves to define it. Possibly descriptive of "a prophet like" Moses, Deut.18:15, whose powerful ministry was also acknowledged by / "before God and all the people", Deut.34:10-12, cf. Acts 3:22, 7:22.

enantion + gen. "before" - The preposition "before, in the presence of" is not spacial, but expresses the sense "in the opinion of", making the point that Jesus' standing as a powerful prophet was recognized / acknowledged by God and all the people.


o{pwV "-" - in order that, so that. Obviously here taking the sense "how / in what manner", where this conjunction is used instead of pwV, "how", in an indirect question, cf. BDF#300.1, although a rather awkward change from the ta peri, "the things concerning / about [Jesus of Nazareth ....]", v19.

te "-" - both [the chief priests and our authorities, rulers]. The genitive hJmwn "our" is adjectival, not possessive, but expressing subordination; "both the chif priests and religious authorities who are over us." Note that there is no mention of the Roman authorities. Luke lays the crime squarely on the head of the Jewish authorities.

paredwkan (paradidwmi) aor. "handed [him] over" - delivered over. "Handed him over for execution", Phillips.

eiV "to [be sentenced]" - to [a judgment]. Spacial, but with the sense "into a state of being", BAGD; "to be condemned to death", Barclay.

qanatou (oV) gen. "to death" - of death. The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic, limiting by definition "a judgment"; "a judgment which consists of death" = "to be condemned to death."


de "but" - but, and. Here adversative. The disciples are not like those who acted to murder Jesus.

hJmeiV "we" - Emphatic.

hlpizomen (elpizw) imperf. "had hoped" - were hoping. Durative imperfect; the disciples hoped over a period of time.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception, hoping/wishing/desiring, expressing what was hoped.

oJ mellwn (mellw) pres. part. "the one who was going" - the one being about. The participle functions as a substantive, as NIV.

lutrousqai (lutrow) pres. inf. "to redeem [Israel]" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the verbal sense of the participle "being about". Jesus has indeed redeemed religious Israel, the Israel of faith, but he has not redeemed national Israel, the state of Israel as it exists subject to Rome. It is national redemption which is on the disciples' mind.

alla ge kai "and" - but/whereas indeed also. This construction produces an emphatic adversative; "not only has all this happened in Jerusalem over the last week, but also ......"

sun + dat. "[what is] more" - in addition to / with / besides [all these things]. Expressing accompaniment;"moreover", Rogers.

agei (agw) pres. "it is" - he is driving, leading, bringing. When expressing a temporal sense, as here, "spending [time]". The subject is possibly Jesus, "Jesus is spending [this third day from/since which / the time when these things happened." The sense being that Jesus, as messiah, is spending, this third day, in a tomb, since this happened; "he (Jesus) is spending the third day since ....", Bauer. On the other hand, the subject may be impersonal, "one is keeping the third day = we are at the third day", Plummer, or better, "this day is the third since these things happened", Nolland. "It is three days since this happened", Fitzmyer.


alla kai "in addition" - but also. Serving to express a strong contrast; "moreover", "what is more", Zerwick.

ex (ek) + gen. "of" - from [us]. Functioning here with hJmwn gen. pro. "us", to form a partitive genitive, as NIV (Semitic form); "some from among our group." Omitted in codex D.

exesthsan (existhmi) aor. "amazed [us]" - amazed, disturbed. When "amazed", the word carries a touch of awe, tending to be a pre-faith response. Here though "disturbed" may be the sense as the disciples have substantiated that the tomb is empty, as reported by the women, a disturbing event in itself, but there is also the unsubstantiated report from the women of an angelic vision and an announcement that Jesus is alive.

genomenai (ginomai) "they went" - having been [early at the tomb]. The participle is adverbial, probably forming a temporal clause; "some women of our circle amazed us when, after they went to the tomb early [in the morning], they were unable to find his body."

epi + acc. "to" - to [the tomb early]. Here expressing motion toward.

orqrinai adj. "early this morning" - early. The adjective functions adverbially, "having been early"; "they went to the tomb early in the morning."


kai "but" - and. A touch adversative.

mh euJrousai (euJriskw) aor. part. "didn't find [his body]" - not having found [the body of him]. The participle is adverbial, probably forming a temporal clause; "some women of our circle amazed us when, after they went to the tomb early in the morning, they were unable to find his body."

legousai (legw) pres. part. "and told us" - saying. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "they came"; "they came and said."

eJwrakenai (oJraw) perf. inf. "that they had seen" - to have seen. The infinitive forms an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech, stating, expressing what they "said"; "we have also (kai) seen a vision of angels." Rather than "two men in dazzling cloths", v4, Luke now tells us that what the women saw was "a vision of angels". This is often used to prove a different source for the tradition. The words of the angels/men is also different, although both accounts make the same point.

aggelwn (oV) gen. "[a vision] of angels" - The genitive may be verbal, objective, as looking to, or subjective, as radiating from. Possibly adjectival, attributive; "an angelic vision."

zhn (zaw) pres. inf. "[he] was alive" - [he] to live. The infinitive again forms a dependent statement of indirect speech, stating, expressing what the angels said, namely "he lives." The present tense is durative.


tineV "some" - In v12 it is only Peter who goes to the tomb to confirm the account given by the women, but obviously Luke is aware of the Johannine tradition of both Peter and John visiting the tomb on the Sunday morning.

twn gen. "of [our] companions" - of the ones [with us]. The genitive nominaizer is adjectival, partitive, and with the preposition sun, "with", gives the sense "companions"; "some of our friends", Barclay.

ou{twV adv. "just [as]" - Expressing manner.

de "but" - Adversative, as NIV.

auton "him [they did not see]" - The pronoun takes an emphatic position in the Gk. "No one saw him."


v] The stranger / Jesus / the risen Lord now recites the gospel, v25-27. For Luke, "the risen Lord himself is the authoritative source of the apostolic message to be given in Acts, v26, and of the message as the content of scripture, v27", Evans. Of course, the disciples are left with "the apparent incongruity between his (Jesus) prophetic ministry and his death at the hand of the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem, and to the puzzle of the empty tomb", Green.

w\ "how [foolish]" - Oh, alas. Vocative for a strong emotional expression.

anohtoi adj. "foolish" - Adjective as a substantive. A strong word, even rude; "stupid", Evans, although Green suggests that "moronic" is too strong and that the sense "obtuse" is better.

bradeiV adj. "slow" - slow, dilatory. Forming a substantival phrase with "of heart".

th/ kardia (a) dat. "of heart" - of the heart. Dative of reference / respect; "with respect to the heart." The "heart" is used to express the seat of reason, so "dull-witted", Cassirer.

tou pisteuein (pisteuw) pres. inf. "to believe" - The infinitive is epexegetic, such that "to believe all that the prophets have spoken" explains the substantives "foolish" and "slow of heart". "How stupid and slow you are to believe ...."

epi + dat. "-" - in/on [all]. "Believe" followed by this preposition usually refers to a person, so faith in an object, eg. faith in the person of Jesus Christ. Here it is faith in what the prophets have spoken, so it is more a resting upon / on their words, cf. BAGD 287. As far as the disciples are concerned, Luke is making the point that "things would have been different if their starting point had been a thoroughgoing belief in the evidence of scripture", Nolland.

oi|V pro. dat. "that [the prophets have spoken]" - which [the prophets said]. Dative due to the attraction of its antecedent "all".


Here Luke gives us a summary of the apostolic gospel. Luke develops this doctrinal statement more fully in the book of Acts.

ouci "[did] not" - This negation is used in a question expecting a positive answer. The question is directed to two Jews who are bound to affirm the obvious, namely that the prophets have clearly stated that it was necessary for the Christ / messiah to suffer and to enter into glory.

edei "did [not the Christ] have to" - it was necessary. Under the sovereign will of God, as revealed in the scriptures, there exists a divine imperative for the Christ to suffer, die, rise and enter into his glory for the redemption of remnant Israel and her associate Gentiles.

paqein (pascw) aor. inf. "to suffer" - The aorist is perfective, expressing a completed action. The infinitive functions as a substantive, subject of the sentence. "the Christ", acc., functions as the subject of the infinitive forming an accusative infinitive construction; "the Christ to suffer these things [and to enter into his glory] was necessary" = "did not Christ have to suffer all this to enter into his glory", Berkeley.

eiselqein (eisercomai) aor. inf. "then enter" - to enter. As above.

autou gen. pro. "his" - The genitive may be classified as verbal, subjective, but probably best taken as adjectival, possessive.

thn doxan "glory" - the glory. The divine imperative applies to Christ's entry into glory as it does to Christ's suffering, for only in his death and life can we pass through death to life eternal.


See introductory notes above.

arxomenoV (arcw) aor. part. "beginning" - having begun. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of explanation; "beginning with Moses and proceeding to all the prophets he explained", TH.

autoiV dat. pro "[he explained] to them" - Dative of indirect object.

peri + gen. "[what was said in all the scriptures] concerning [himself]" - [the things] concerning [himself]. Expressing reference / respect; "all the references in the scriptures to himself", Barclay.


vi] Luke continues to relate the events surrounding the journey to Emmaus. Jesus intends to go further, but the disciples beg him to stay with them for the night, presumably at the home of one of them, v28-29.

ou| gen. pro. "to which" - where [they were travelling]. Here functioning as a locative adverb.

prosepoihsato (prospoiew) "Jesus acted as if" - [he] acted as though. The subject is obviously Jesus. Sometimes translated "as if Jesus appeared to be going further", or the more blunt "he pretended to go (travel) further.". The aversion to "pretend" stems from the implied deception. Jesus' action serves "to bring to light an urgent but unconscious need of the disciples", Evans, but then does this mean that the ends justify the means? Marshall and Bock argue that "pretend" is too strong since the word means "to act as if something is going to happen." Fitzmyer suggests that it is simply "a literary foil" on the part of Luke, a means of increasing "suspense", Green, such that Jesus actually had every intention of going further, Plummer, but was "constrained" to stay with the two disciples.

poreuesqai (poreuomai) pres. inf. "he were going" - to go. The infinitive functions as the direct object of the verb "pretend"; "Jesus gave the impression that he was going further."

porrwteron adv. "farther" - far away. Comparative adverb.


parebiasanto (parabiazomai) aor. "they urged [him] strongly" - they persuaded, pressed. The word leans toward the meaning "pressed", so more in line with "constrained", AV.

legonteV (legw) pres. part. "-" - saying. Attendant circumstance participle, redundant.

meinon (menw) aor. imp. "stay" - abide. "Abide" in the sense of "stay overnight as a guest", TH.

meq (meta) + gen. "with [us]" - Expressing association / accompaniment.

oJti "for" - that. Here causal, "because".

proV esperan estin "it is nearly evening" - it is toward evening. A common phrase for late afternoon.

kekliken hdh hJ hJmera "the day is almost over" - the day has tipped over already. Serving to reinforce the argument that Jesus should stay with his fellow travellers.

tou meinai (menw) aor. inf. "to stay [with them]" - to remain, abide. The genitive articular infinitive usually serves to form a purpose clause, "he entered [the home] in order to say with them."

sun + dat. "with [them]" - Expressing association / accompaniment.


vii] Jesus reveals himself, v30-31: Having persuaded Jesus to draw aside for a meal, the disciples recognize Jesus when their eyes are "opened". Divine power is implied. The opening of the scriptures and the breaking of bread, does the trick.

kai egeneto "-" - and it happened. Serving to introduce a narrative.

en tw/ katakliqhnai (kataklinw) aor. inf. "when [he] was at the table" - to reline at table. This preposition with the articular infinitive usually forms a temporal clause, contemporaneous time, as NIV.

labwn (lambanw) aor. part. "he took [the bread]" - having taken. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "he blessed".

klasaV (klaw) aor. part. "he broke [it]" - having broken. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "he began to give" (inceptive imperfect where the focus is on the beginning of the action).


de "-" - but, and. Here transitional, introducing a new literary unity / paragraph.

dihnoicqhsan (dianoigw) aor. pas. "[their eyes] were opened" - An example of a theological passive, ie. God does the opening. This classification remains dubious, so the disciple's recognition may be prompted by Jesus' behavior, or by divine intervention.

afantoV adj. "[he] disappeared]" - [he became (someone)] disappearing, invisible. There are a number of post resurrection appearances, but this is the only time Jesus disappears / becomes invisible, and this without a word. "With the revelation that Jesus lives, his visible presence is no longer necessary", Bock. In fact, given that Jesus is now entering into his glory, his visible presence is no longer possible; "this is Luke's contribution to the problem of the resurrection", Danker.

ap (apo) + gen. "from [their sight]" - from [them]. Expressing separation; "away from." Fitzmyer notes the unusual grammar here is best explained by the fact that this phrase often follows the verb afanizein, "to be made to disappear [from them / from their sight]."


viii] Recognition, v32: "Were not our hearts burning within us ...?"

ouci "[were] not" - This negation is used in a question expecting a positive answer.

kaiomenh h\n "were [not our hearts] burning" - burning were. The present participle with the imperfect of the verb to-be forms a paraphrastic imperfect construction, probably emphasizing durative aspect. "Heart" obviously means "mind", unless the Semitic understanding of "heart" is not present. A "burning mind" is rather awkward. Possibly "weren't we agitated / excited while he talked to us ..."

en + dat. "within [us]" - Expressing space / sphere. Variant reading.

wJV "while" - Here not comparative, but rather introducing a temporal clause which is paralleled with a second for emphasis; "while he talked to us on the road [and] while he opened the scriptures to us."

hJmin dat. pro. "[he talked] with us" - to us. Dative of indirect object / accompaniment.

en + dat. "on [the road]" - in [the way]. Expressing space / sphere.


ix] The two disciples return to Jerusalem to report their meeting with Jesus to the apostles, v33-35.

anastanteV (anisthmi) aor. part. "they got up [and returned]" - having got up, arisen. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "they returned", as NIV.

auth/ th/ wJra/ dat. "at once" - this hour. The dative is adverbial, temporal; "and there and then they started out", Barclay.

hqroismenouV (aqroizw) perf. pas. part. "assembled together" - having been gathered together. The participle serves as an object complement to "the eleven", the object of the verb "they found"; "they found the eleven [who were] gathered there with their companions", Cassirer.


legontaV (legw) acc. "and saying" - saying. The participle is possibly adjectival; "who told them that the Lord had really risen", Moffatt. Possibly an attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "they found", v33, although it is obviously not the two returning disciples who announce that Jesus has appeared to Peter - variant nominative exists to have the two disciples declaring that the Lord is risen. Culy opts for an object complement modifying touV sun autoiV, "those with them."

oJti "-" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of stating, expressing what the eleven told the two disciples. NIV opts for direct speech.

ontwV "it is true!" - indeed. "For certain", Evans.

hgerqh (egairw) aor. pas. "has risen" - was raised. Expressed in the terms of a recounted gospel tradition (the kerygma) rather than a more grammatically correct expression of the words used at the time of speaking. Luke's language is similar to first Corinthians 15:3-5a.

Simwni (wn) dat. "[and has appeared] to Simon" - [and there was seen] to Simon. Dative of direct object / interest, advantage. Why "Simon" rather than "Peter"? It is interesting that only here among the synoptic gospels is an appearance to Peter mentioned? Clearly Paul is aware of such a tradition, as recorded in first Corinthians 15, so Luke, as a colleague of Paul's, at least has this source. Again, another formula-like phrase; "a stereotyped formula for appearances", Fitzmyer.


kai "then" - and. Usually treated temporally here, as NIV.

exhgounto (exhgeomai) imperf. "[the two] told" - [they] were explaining. The imperfect is used due to the durative nature of speech.

ta "what had happened [on the way]" - the things [on the way]. Nominalizer; "they told their story of what had happened on the road", NJB.

wJV "how" - This conjunction takes numerous meanings, but here possibly serving to introduce a dependent statement of indirect speech (standing in for oJti), but with an adverbial sense expressing "how / in what manner" Jesus was made known to them

en + dat. "when he broke the bread" - in the breaking of bread. The preposition here functions adverbially, probably temporal, as NIV. An instrumental sense, "by the breaking of bread," is certainly a possibility and one wonders whether this is not the point that Luke is actually making - see the sample sermon. Culy suggests the the prepositional construction "simply points to the context" and so makes no verbal comment. As noted above, the phrase may allude to the Lord's Supper, but more likely to the fellowship meal / love-feast of the New Testament community - see again the sample sermon.


Luke Introduction



[Pumpkin Cottage]