Luke

1:5-25

The mission of the Messiah, 1:5-9:50

1. Prophecies concerning the coming messiah, 1:5-2:40

i] Vision in the temple

Synopsis

Zechariah, a priest, and his wife Elizabeth were childless. While serving in the temple, an angel appears to Zechariah and announces the birth of a son. Zechariah's doubt brings with it divine chastisement in the form of short-term deafness, but none-the-less, Elizabeth soon conceives a child as promised. The vision in the temple is typical of visions in that the angel speaks, there is fear and this is dispelled by the angel's message. This is then followed by doubt, settled in a sign.

 
Teaching

In the opening section of the gospel, Prophecies concerning the coming messiah, 1:5-2:40, Luke gathers together a group of visions and prophesies. For Luke, these herald the dawning of the messianic era; they testify that Jesus is the long-awaited messiah.

 
Issues

i] Context: As noted in the Introduction, the overall structure adopted in these notes is the one proposed by Earle Ellis. For an overview of the many proposed outlines see Bock. Ellis divides the gospel into three major divisions, the first division, The mission of the Messiah, 1:5-9:50, is primarily focused on the acts of messiah. The sixfold division of this first unit of episodes presents as three prophecies and three visions. Of the six sections in the first division, the first covers the infancy narrative and serve as prophecies which attest to the messiahship of Jesus. The second section, 2:41-4:30, consist of witnesses to Jesus' messiahship. The next four sections primarily draw on Markan material and set out to relate the acts of messiah. Although geography is not of great concern to Luke, these acts form the bulk of Jesus' Galilean ministry. As noted in the introduction, it is difficult to imagine that Luke devised such a structure for his gospel, but Ellis' does reveal something of Luke's ordered arrangment of gospel tradition.

Following the Acts of Messiah we have the Teachings of Messiah, 9:51-19:44. Again Ellis proposes six separate teaching units each of which is divided into six episodes. The third section of the gospel, The Culmination of Messiah's Mission, 19:45-24:53, divides into three units, with each again presenting as six episodes.

 

ii] Structure: This narrative, A vision in the temple, presents as follows:

Situation, v5-7;

A childless couple.

Prophetic intervention, v8-23:

Setting - in the temple, v8-10;

Angelic proclamation, v11-20;

"your wife will bear a son ..."

Consequences, v21-23;

"he could not speak ..."

Resolution, v24-25:

"Elizabeth became pregnant ..."

 

iii] Interpretation:

It seems likely that the formed apostolic gospel tradition evident in the synoptic gospels did not include the infancy stories. The different handling by Luke and Matthew of the events leading up to Jesus' baptism indicate that they were free to form this part of the gospel story as they saw fit. Luke, drawing on his sources, develops a comparison between John and Jesus which serves to reveal Jesus' superiority. Yet, although Jesus supersedes John, John's importance as a prophet in the tradition of Elijah, and even Jeremiah (1:15), is by no means diminished. Luke carefully weaves John and Jesus into the world of Old Testament Israel by means of Biblical allusions expressed in the language-style of the LXX. Portents and predictions herald their birth announcing the presence of great-ones in the midst of humanity, particularly the world of Israel, with its center Jerusalem. In this particular episode we are introduced to the prophet John whose task is the prepare the people for the coming of the Lord.

 

iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

 
Text - 1:5

The vision in the temple, v5-25: i] Luke begins by introducing his readers to the main participants in the story, Zechariah and Elizabeth, v5-7. A priest would get to preside at the morning or evening sacrifice in the temple once in their life, if they were lucky. Zechariah was a member of Abijah, the eighth of twenty-four ancient priestly orders. His wife was also of a priestly family. His opportunity to serve comes during Herod's reign in Palestine (Judea means Palestine here). Both Zechariah and his wife were, in an Old Testament sense, godly people, yet they were aged and childless

en + dat. "in the time" - in [the days]. Temporal use of the preposition.

HJrw/dou gen. "of Herod" - An idomatic adjectival genitive limiting "the days", obviously of time; "the days when Herod was the king of Judea." Referring to Herod the Great, 37-4BC.

thV IoudaiaV (a) gen. "of Judea" - The genitive is adjectival, subordination; "over Judea."

egeneto (ginomai) aor. "there was" - Often used to begin a new paragraph / episode; "there was, in the day of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest", AV.

onomati (a atoV) dat. "named [Zechariah]" - by name [Zechariah]. The dative is adverbial, reference / respect; "with respect to his name, Zachariah.

ex (ek) + gen. "who belonged to [the priestly division]" - out of [division.] Expressing source. A class or group of priests performing certain functions in the Temple. There were 24 such classes, each serving for two weeks in a year.

autw/ dat. pro. "his [wife]" - wife [to him]. Dative of possession.

Aarwn gen. "[a descendent] of Aaron" - [of the daughters] of Aaron. The genitive is adjectival, relational. Indicating that Elizabeth was born to a priestly family, as was Zechariah. "His wife, whose name was Elizabeth, was also of priestly descent", REB.

 
v6

dikaioi adj. "upright" - righteous. Probably used in the sense of a life lived with exemplary Jewish piety rather than in the sense of morally perfect or justified, although note the next clause.

enantion + gen. "in the sight of" - before. The literal spacial sense of the preposition "before, in the sight of, in the presence of", expresses the sense that he was serving in the temple before / in front of the throne of God. Expressed as service under the authority of God, or service to God, makes better sense.

poreuomenoi (poreuomai) pres. part. "observing" - walking about. The participle is adverbial, possibly causal; "for they lived in blameless obedience to all the commandments", Barclay. Yet, the adverbial sense could also be consecutive, expressing result, or modal, expressing manner; "walking in all the commandments", AV. A noncommittal attendant circumstance participle may be better given that it would be wrong to assume that a person's standing in the sight of God was the result of their obedience; "were righteous before God and lived in conformity with all the commands and decrees of God", Culy. They were "going" in God's way.

tou kuriou (oV) "the Lord's [commands]" - [the commandments and regulations] of the Lord. Usually referring to Jesus with the article, but here obviously "God", LXX = Yahweh. The genitive may be classified as ablative, source / origin, or verbal, subjective..

amemptoi adj. "blamelessly" - blameless. The NIV treats this adjective as adverbial. Culy treats it as a predicate adjective of an implied h\san, "they were blameless"; "both were righteous in the sight of God, living a blameless life in full observance of the commandments and precepts of the Lord", Rieu. Best taken as emphasizing their piety, not their perfection; "they were good people", CEV.

 
v7

kai "but" - and. NIV takes the particle as an adversative, although Luke may well just want to add, "and ....." A more gentle approach to their situation, given the shame of being childless. A state commonly regarded as punishment for sin.

autoiV dat. pro. "they [had no children]" - a child was not [to them]. Dative of possession.

kaqoti "because" - This conjunction is often causal, as here, "because, for."

probebhkoteV (probainw) perf. part. "they were [both] well along [in years]" - [they were] having been advanced [in the days of them]. The participle with the imperfect verb to-be h\san forms a periphrastic pluperfect; possibly emphasizing aspect, an ongoing state. Luke provides us with information to further the wonder of the miracle of John's birth. The phrase is simply stating that "they were both getting on in years", Phillips.

 
v8

ii] The story of the annunciation, v8-23. a) Setting, v8-10. It was in his old age that the lottery for service at the Temple fell on Zechariah. Events unfold as he keeps the incense burning on the altar in front of the Most Holy Place while hidden from the worshippers outside.

Nolland, referring to Hubbard, The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commissioning, notes the elements of a commissioning found in this story: circumstantial introduction, v8-10; confrontation between the commissioner and the commissioned, v11; reaction to the holy presence, v12; commission proper, v13-17; protest to commission, v18; reassurance, v19-20; conclusion, v21-23.

egeneto "once" - it came to pass, it happened. Serving to introduce the narrative proper.

en tw/ + inf. "when" - in the [to perform priestly duties of him]. This construction forms a temporal clause, contemporaneous time; "it came to pass, while he was performing his priestly duties."

en + dat. "when [Zechariah's division was on duty]" - in [the order of the division of him]. Forming a prepositional phrase which is either locative, "in the sequence of his series as customary among the priests", Berkeley, or temporal, as NIV. Phillips nicely treats the phrase as a paresis; "(it was the turn of his division to be on duty)".

iJerateuein (iJerateuw) pres. inf. "was serving as priest" - to perform priestly duties. The infinitive with en tw/ above. "To take part in the temple service", REB.

enanti + gen. "before [God]" - See enantion, v6.

 
v9

elace (lagcanw) aor. "he was chosen by lot" - he received / he was chosen by lot / he chose by lot. It is unclear who does the choosing, but it is probably done on behalf of the priests, so "he was chosen by lot". According to Josephus, there were some 8,000 priests in Jerusalem. There was a morning and evening offering of incense which was allocated to a priest by means of a lottery. A person would be lucky to receive this honour once or twice in their life.

kata + acc. "according to" - Expressing a standard: "in accordance with, corresponding to." Not, "he was serving as a priest according to custom", but "according to custom he was chosen."

thV iJerateiaV (a) gen. "[the custom] of the priesthood" - The genitive is adjectival, idomatic; "the custom followed by those in the priestly office", Culy.

eiselqwn (eisercomai) aor. part. "to go [into]" - having entered. The participle is adverbial, possibly temporal, as AV, "when he went into the temple of the Lord", but probably better attendant circumstance expressing action accompanying the infinitive "to burn incense"; "he was chosen by lot, as the custom is in the priestly office, to go into the sanctuary of the Lord and offer incense", Cassirer.

ton naon (oV) "the temple" - This is not the usual word used by Luke for the temple precincts. Here used to refer to the holy place where the sacrifice is offered, which was in front of the great curtain hanging before the holy of holies, so "holy place."

tou qumiasai (qumiaw) aor. inf. "burn incense" - to burn incense. This construction, the genitive articular infinitive, usually forms a purpose clause, "in order to burn", or hypothetical result, "so that he could burn."

 
v10

th/ w{ra/ (a) dat. "when the time .... came" - at the hour. The dative serves to introduce a temporal clause; "the hour when the incense was burnt."

tou qumiamatoV (a atoV) gen. "for the burning of incense" - of the incense burning. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / temporal, limiting "hour"; "the hour when the incense was offered", Culy.

to plhqoV (oV) "the assembled" - multitude, the whole body. "The crowded congregation", Phillips.

tou laou (oV) gen. "worshipers" - of the people. The genitive is adjectival, partitive / wholative. "People" here probably takes the more religious sense of "congregation."

hn ... proseucomenon (proseucomai) pres. part. "were praying" - A periphrastic imperfect, possibly used to emphasize a durative aspect, continued praying; "the mass of the people all remained in prayer outside", Moffatt. The people's prayer is an act of participation in the priestly function.

 
v11

b) The angelic proclamation, v11-20: In the quietness and solitude of the Holy Place, an angel appears and speaks with Zechariah. Fear is a reasonable response, given the circumstances. The term "angel of the Lord" probably means "the angel who serves the Lord." The angel tells how Zechariah and Elizabeth's prayer for a child is about to be answered. The child will be a son and they must name him John. He will be a "joy and delight" to them. His birth will cause great rejoicing. He will be "great in the sight of the Lord". He is not to drink alcohol and will be "filled with the Holy Spirit even from birth" - he will be stimulated by the Spirit rather than alcohol. The Holy Spirit had come on the Old Testament prophets intermittently, but John is to reflect the dawning of the new age where the Spirit is poured out permanently. The angel's prophecy continues with the announcement that John will gather many of the lost of Israel into the kingdom. He will be the long-awaited Elijah who will turn the hearts of the people in preparation for the coming of the messiah, Mal.4:5. This is all a bit much for Zechariah and so he doubts the veracity of the vision. The angel then gives his name, although it is more rightly his function; Gabriel foretold the messiah's coming and now he proclaims that the day has come, Dan.9:25. This is the Gabriel who will sound the trumpet at the parousia. Doubt has its cost, and so Zechariah is given a sign; he is rendered speechless until the birth of John.

de "then" - but, and. Coordinative, "and".

aggeloV "an angel" - Often an anarthrous (without an article) aggeloV means a definite "the angel [of the Lord]", serving as a general term for a theophany. Here though it is obviously "an angel."

kuriou (oV) gen. "of the Lord" - The genitive may be classified as ablative, source / origin, "an angel from the Lord", or adjectival, idiomatic, limiting "angel"; "and angel who serves the Lord / in service to the Lord."

wfqh (oJraw) aor. pas. + dat. "appeared" - there appeared. An objective appearing is intended. Interestingly, announcements of a divinely instigated birth are usually to the wife.

autw/ "to him" - Dative of indirect object, but at the same time the passive of oJraw normally takes the dative of persons / dative of direct object.

eJstwV (iJsthmi) perf. part. "standing" - having stood. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting angel, "who was standing", although since it is anarthrous it may be adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of the angel's appearing.

ek dexiwn adj. "at the right side" - out of right side. A technical phrase meaning "at the right side", as NIV. The side of favor. Plummer notes that the angel is therefore between the altar and the candlestick in the Holy Place.

tou qusiasthriou (on) gen. "of the altar" - The genitive is adjectival, partitive.

tou qumimatoV (a atoV) gen. "of incense" - The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / locative; "the altar where the incense is burned."

 
v12

idwn (eidon) aor. part. "when [Zechariah] saw" - seeing. The participle is adverbial, temporal, as NIV.

etaracqh (tarassw) aor. pas. "he was startled" - was terrified, troubled. The position is emphatic, while the word itself expresses real terror: "alarmed", Barrett, better than "troubled", Moffatt, etc. For Luke, such a response is a long way from faith.

ep (epi) + acc. "[he was gripped with fear]" - [fear fell] upon [him]. Spacial, "down upon, on."

 
v13

mh fobou pres. imp. "do not be afraid" - do not fear. It is often argued that mh with the present imperative serves as a command to cease an action which is already underway, so "don't be afraid any longer." See Porter for a contra view.

dioti "-" - because. Introducing a causal clause, "for your petition has been heard", Weymouth.

sou gen. pro. "your [prayer]" - The genitive may be classified as: adjectival, possessive; ablative, expressing source, "from you"; verbal, subjective.

eishkousqh (eisakouw) aor. pas. "has been heard" - was heard. What prayer was heard; his prayer for a son or the redemption of Israel? If it's his prayer in the sanctuary, then it is probably his prayer for the redemption of Israel. Luke makes a point of stating that the prayers of the righteous are answered, 18:7-8.

kai "-" - and. Culy opts for a consecutive sense here, serving to introduce the result of the previous event; "because God has hard your prayer, your wife Elizabeth is going to bear a son for you."

sou gen. pro. "your [wife]" - A genitive of relationship.

soi dat. pro. "you [a son]" - [a son] to you. Dative of indirect object / interest, advantage. Culy corrects Wallace's dative of direct object stating it is a dative of interest, advantage, "a son for you", but as Turner notes, most datives can be classed as a dative of interest, so both are right.

 
v14

estai (eimi) fut. "he will be" - The subject of the verb to-be is unclear. Is it an assumed John, as NIV, or is it the singular collective "you"? The dative "you" would be a dative of direct object if John is the subject, and a dative of interest, advantage if "you" is the subject, "for you will be joy and gladness"; "your heart will be filled with joy and exaltation", Cassirer.

cara (a) "a joy" - A word often used by luke to describe a person's reaction to a confrontation with the divine in Jesus. Both joy and gladness have messianic overones which express the reaction of God's people to the coming kingdom. "His birth will make you very happy", CEV.

soi dat. pro. "to you" - Dative of indirect object.

polloi adj. "many" - many, much. Some argue it means "all", but "a lot will be exceedingly happy" is better.

epi + dat. "because of" - on. A causal sense is probably intended; "on the basis of."

autou gen. pro. "his [birth]" - [the birth] of him. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, although an active / verbal noun can prompt a classification of either a subjective, or objective genitive, here objective since the genitive "him" receives the action of the verbal noun "birth", but possibly subjective since "him" prompts his birth from within the womb; "the birth of him." It is examples like this that spawns suspicion of a verbal classification!!!

 
v15

gar "for" - Expressing cause/reason; introducing a causal clause explaining why John will be a joy and delight.

megaV adj. "great" - In the sense that John has an important part to play in God's plans.

enwpion + gen. "in the sight [of the Lord]" - before, in front of. Spacial. As with enanti, v8, and enantion, v6; see v6. Possibly: "your son will be a servant of the Lord", CEV; "God will give him a great task to do", Barclay; "he will be one of God's great men", Phillips ..., all attempting to give some sense to being "before" the Lord.

ou mh + subj. "[he is] never [to take]" - not [may he drink]. A subjunctive of emphatic negation; "he will never ever take strong wine ..."

sikera "fermented drink" - Possibly "beer", but then any alcoholic drink, so "wine and spirits." There is no argument here that such are evil, but rather that John will take on the role of an ascetic or Nazarite (although there is no mention of not cutting his hair) as an expression of his prophetic office.

plhsqhsetai (pimplhmi) fut. pas. "he will be filled" - filled, fulfilled. Unlike the prophets of old, the abiding presence of the Spirit will be continuous rather than intermittent. As to when he is "filled", some argue at birth, others argue for "in his mother's womb", cf. 1:41. For Luke, this "filling" is for proclamation. Following Old Testament precedence, a person is filled and then speaks for God.

pneumatoV aJgiou gen. "the Holy Spirit" - holy spirit. The genitive is adjectival, of content; "filled full of the Holy Spirit." "Spirit" is usually regarded as a monadic noun, that is, taking an assumed definite article rather than being anarthrous, thus "the [God's] Holy Spirit."

eti ek + gen. "even from" - yet out of. An emphatic construction serving to identify a particular point of time.

autou gen. pro. "[birth]" - [mother's belly] of him. Genitive of relationship.

 
v16

twn uiJwn (oV) gen. "[many] of the people [of Israel]" - [many] of the sons/descendents [of Israel]. The genitive is adjectival, partitive. John's ministry is limited to Israel.

epistreyei (epistrefw) fut. "he will bring back" - he will turn back, turn around. The sense is of "repentance", a turning to, or better, a returning to God; an action constantly required of the people of Israel in the Old Testament. Although this turning around involves a return to righteousness, of piety toward God and compassion toward one's neighbor, it is Israel's inability to love either God or neighbor that will focus John's message on the greater one who comes after him, the one who is the saviour of God's fallen people.

autwn gen. pro. "their [God]" - [God] of them. Genitive of subordination.

 
v17

Note the Old Testament allusions in this verse, Mal.2:6, 3:1, 3:24, 4:5.

proeleusetai (proercomai) fut. "will go on" - will go forward. The sense of leading or going before the Lord means "introducing", "representing", thus "proclaiming" the Lord (God, rather than the messiah, Jesus) to the people. Probably not referring to John as Jesus' "forerunner", even though he is.

en + dat. "in" - The preposition here is probably adverbial expressing manner, "John proclaims God, with spirit and power / with God's powerful Spirit, as Elijah proclaimed God." Possibly instrumental, means, guided by, "possessed by the spirit and power of Elijah", NEB; "with the same spirit and power that Elijah had", CEV.

pneumati kai dunamei "the spirit and power" - Is the "spirit" here God's Spirit. If so, possibly better rendered "powerful Spirit."

Hliou "of Elijah" - The genitive is adjectival, relational; "the spirit and power that were associated with Elijah", Culy. John ministers/preaches in the same manner as Elijah, although without miracles.

epistreyai (epistrefw) inf. "to turn" - The infinitive is adverbial, probably final, expressing purpose, "in order to." See above. i] Mal.3:24, family reconciliation; ii] reconciliation with God. Many commentators argue for symbolic or spiritual interpretations of this dual reconciliation, eg. the fathers represent Israel and the son's represent the Gentiles. Obviously, this is a call for a return to loving God and loving neighbor. Both elements are present in John's preaching.

epi + acc. "to [their children]" - to [children]. Here taking a spacial sense. "It will be his task to reconcile fathers and children", Barclay.

en + dat. "to [the wisdom]" - in [wisdom, thinking, thoughtfulness, understanding]. Here, in the place of epi, indicating a change from, "to", "into", into a state of." A rare use for this preposition; "to turn the disobedient."

dikaiwn gen. adj. "of the righteous" - The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "wisdom". Luke has just identified John's task as a social one, restoring relationships, but it is also a spiritual one, of turning the disobedient to "righteous thoughts." Note that Culy also suggests a classification of verbal, subjective, "to the wisdom of the righteous", and ablative, source / origin, "wisdom from the righteous."

etoimasai (etoimazw) aor. inf. "to make ready" - to prepare. Again the infinitive is adverbial, final, expressing purpose. The addition of the perf. pas. part. kateskeuasmenon "having been made ready" ("prepared", NIV), probably functions adjectivally; "in order to make ready a people who are prepared for the Lord". This serves to emphasize the preparedness, so "to make a people perfectly ready for the Lord", Goodspeed.

 
v18

kata + acc. "[how can I be sure of this]?" - according to [what will I know this]? Expressing a standard; "in accordance with." Another Old Testament allusion, Gen.15:8, LXX. Zechariah is actually asking for a sign, which is understandable in the circumstances and for this he has Old Testament precedence. None-the-less, such a request evidences little faith and is treated accordingly. Zechariah got his sign; he was struck dumb. "How shall I know that this is really going to happen", Barclay.

gar "-" - for. Expressing cause/reason; introducing a causal clause explaining why Zechariah is sceptical of the promise.

egw "I [am an old man]" - Emphatic use of the pronoun.

probebhkuia (probainw) perf. part. "is well along [in years]" - having advanced [in the days of her]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, describing "wife", a "wife [who is] well stricken in years", AV, but as Culy suggests it is best to assume an implied estin forming a periphrastic plueperfect; "my wife is advanced in years", Moffatt. "My wife and I are both very old", CEV.

 
v19

apokriqeiV (apokrinomai) aor. pas. part. "[the angel] answered" - having answered [the angel said]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying a redundant verb "said." - a Semitic construction which gives weight to what is said.

autw/ dat. pro. "-" - to him. Dative of indirect object.

egw pro. "I [am]" - Emphatic use of the pronoun.

Gabrihl "Gabriel" - Possible meanings include: "God is my hero", "God has shown himself strong." It was commonly held that he was one of a small number of angels who had direct access to God.

oJ paresthkwV (paristhmi) perf. part. "I stand" - the one having stood. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Gabriel"; "I am Gabriel who stands in the presence of God", Berkeley.

apestalhn (apostellw) aor. "I have been sent" - I was sent. Aorist indicating completed action. The sense is "I was commissioned."

euaggelisasqai (euaggelw) aor. inf. "to tell" - to announce. This infinitive, as with "to speak", is adverbial, final, expressing purpose; "I was sent in order to speak to you and announce these things to you."

soi dat. pro "you" - to you. Dative of indirect object.

tauta "this good news" - [to announce] these things [to you]. Accusative direct object of "to announce." The "good news", "glad tidings, Berkeley, "happy news", Cassirer, .... etc. are all prompted by the participle of the verb "to proclaim good news." This verb technically means to announce important news, the "these things" being the words / divine message; "I have been sent to speak to you and communicate this important news to you."

 
v20

idou "-" - behold. Interjection. Serving to introduce a significant statement or event.

esh/ siwpwn "you will be silent" - you will be mute. As with the negated participle dunamenoV "not being able", Luke has formed a future periphrastic construction, the future of the verb "to be" + the pres. part., serving to emphasize durative aspect; "you shall live in silence", Phillips.

lalhsai (lalew) aor. inf. "[not able] to speak" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the negated participle "not being able".

acri + subj. "until [the day this happens]" - until [which day these things happen]. The construction forms an indefinite temporal clause. Referring to the birth of John.

anq (anti) wJn "because" - instead of which. The preposition anti + gen. pro. forms a relative causal construction; "and this will be so because you have put no trust in my words", Cassirer.

toiV logoiV (oV) dat. "[you did not believe] my words" - [you did not believe] in the words [of me]. Dative of direct object.

mou gen. pro. "my [words]" - The genitive is possessive.

eiV ton kairon autwn "at their proper time" - in the time of them. This prepositional construction is temporal; "in the time appointed by God for the fulfilment of Gabriel's words." Time is taken as not "point of time", "duration of time", "time at which", but most likely "the proper / appropriate time"; "appointed time", JB.

 
v21

c) The consequences, v21-23: The sacrificial service is proceeding outside while Zechariah continues to serve before the Most Holy Place. As part of the ceremony, the priest would come out and pronounce a blessing. Zechariah is delayed by the vision, and when he does come out, the best he can do is gesture to the gathered worshippers. They reasoned rightly that he had seen a vision.

kai "meanwhile" - and. Connective, but certainly here introducing a change of scene.

hn .... prosdokwn (prosdokew) "were waiting" - The imperfect of the verb to-be with the present participle forming an imperfect periphrastic emphasizing duration, "the people were waiting impatiently for something to happen."

eqaumazon (qaumazw) imperf. "wondering why" - they were amazed. They, the people, "were surprised that he was lingering so long", Barclay.

auton acc. pro. "he" - Functioning as the subject of the infinitive, thus taking the accusative case.

en tw/ cronizein (cronizw) pres. inf. "stayed so long" - in to stay long, delay. This construction, the preposition en with the dative articular infinitive, forms a temporal clause, contemporaneous time, "while, during."

en + dat. "in [the temple]" - Locative, expressing space / sphere.

 
v22

exelqwn (exercomai) aor. part. "when he came out" - having come out. The participle is adverbial, temporal, as NIV.

lalhsai (lalew) aor. inf. "[he could not] speak" - [he was not able] to speak. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the negated verb "he was not able."

autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - Dative of indirect object.

kai "-" - Culy, noting the work of Titrud, makes the point that kai has a greater force than just introducing a conjoined clause, but implies that the clause introduces the result of the previous event; "when he came out he was unable to speak and so they realized that he had a vision in the sanctuary."

oJti "[they realized]" - [they knew] that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what they "realized / knew"; "they realized that he had seen ("has seen" in the tense of their actual throught) a vision."

h|n dianeuwn (dianeuw) pres. part. "he kept making signs" - was motioning. Imperfect periphrastic again indicating continued action, "he continued making signs to them." The actual sequence of events is unclear as a number of priests would be present leading different parts of the liturgy. Clearly, Zechariah had been alone at one point in the service, and was now unable to perform his part of the concluding liturgy. The "making signs" may well be the final blessing which he performed with hand gestures.

 
v23

kai egeneto (ginomai) aor. "-" - and it came about. "And it came to pass", AV.

wJV "when" - as, like / while. Here the conjunction takes a temporal sense, as NIV. "The days" generally expresses "the time", as NIV.

thV leitourgiaV (a) gen. "[his time] of service" - [the days] of the service [of him]. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / temporal; "the time when his administration was completed."

eplhsqhsan (pimplhmi) aor. pas. "were completed" - was fulfilled. "Were accomplished".

aphlqen eiV ton oikon autou "he returned home" - he went to the house of him. "He went home", CEV. Zechariah lived in the hill country South of Jerusalem, cf. 1:39

 
v24

iii] Conclusion; the preliminary fulfillment of the promise, v24-25. The service completed, Zechariah and Elizabeth return home. Elizabeth concealed her pregnancy for as long as possible, most likely to saviour its joy for herself. In Jewish society, to be found childless was regarded as a "disgrace", a "reproach".

meta + acc. "after" - after. Here the preposition is temporal; "after those days ..."

autou gen. pro. "his [wife]" - Genitive of relationship.

sunelaben (sullambanw) aor. "became pregnant" - was seized = conceived.

periekruben (perikrubw) imperf. "remained in seclusion" - she was hiding. "She entirely concealed the fact that she was pregnant for over five months." Numerous suggestions have been put forward as to why she did this, but all are a matter of speculation.

legousa (legw) pres. part. "-" - saying. The participle is adverbial, modal; "saying", AV, "remarking", Berkeley, "declaring", Junkins.

 
v25

oJti "-" - that. Introducing a dependent statement, direct speech, expressing what she was legousa perf. part. "saying", v24, "she said ....", v25.

ou{twV adv. "[the Lord has done] this" - [Lord has done] thus. The adverb here is modal expressing manner; "the Lord has acted in this way on my behalf." Pointing either back to the fulfilment of the Lord's promise in v24, or pointing forward to the second clause of this verse, namely "God saw fit to take away the public humiliation which I was suffering."

moi dat. pro. "for me" - to me. Dative of interest, advantage.

en + dat. "in [these days]" - The preposition expresses a temporal sense here.

ai|V dat. pro. "-" - [in days] in which. Dative of time , "during which."

epeiden (epeidon) aor. "he has shown favor" - he looked on. "He smiled upon me", Williams.

afelein (afairew) aor. inf. "taken away" - to take away. The infinitive probably serves to form a purpose or result clause. Result: "what the Lord has done will keep people from looking down on me", CEV.

mou "my [disgrace]" - [reproach] of me. Possibly an objective genitive, "the disgrace I have endured", Goodspeed, but more likely adjectival, possessive. The disgrace is the assumed divine chastisement that goes with being childless.

en "among" - in. Taking a local sense / association. "He has taken away the thing that was a public humiliation to me", Barclay.

 

Luke Introduction

Exposition

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