Luke

2:22-40

The mission of the Messiah, 1:5-9:50

1. Prophecies concerning the coming messiah, 1:5-2:40

vi] Prophecy in the temple

Synopsis

The naming of Jesus and his presentation in the temple, is immediately followed by the witness of Simeon and Anna. Anna makes no specific prophecy, but her thanksgiving implies she has knowledge of Jesus' real person. Simeon, in the power of the Holy Spirit, witnesses directly to Jesus' messiahship.

 
Teaching

Jesus is the hope and glory of religious Israel and the "light of revelation for Gentiles." The long hoped salvation of Israel now extends to the Gentiles, and unlike Israel, they will listen, cf., Acts 28:28.

 
Issues

i] Context: See 1:5-25. The story of the presentation of the baby Jesus at the temple is the last of six episodes concerning the dawn of the messianic age. Each of these episodes have served as a prophecy concerning the coming messiah.

 

ii] Structure: This passage, The prophecy in the temple, presents as follows:

Setting, v22-24;

The prophecy of Simon, v25-35:

Simon meets Jesus and his family, v25-27;

Simon's song, 28-32;

Simon's blessing and prophecy, v33-35;

The witness of Anna, v36-38;

Jesus and family return to Galilee, v39-40.

 

iii] Interpretation:

This narrative, with its setting in Jerusalem and the temple, places Jesus in the midst of the religious and social life of Israel. His parents fulfill the requirements of the law, and, in their encounter with Simeon and Anna. Both Simon and Anna identify Jesus as the fulfillment of the Israel's religious hope.

 

The lifting of Mary's ceremonial uncleanness would normally require the sacrifice of a lamb as well as the that of a dove or pigeon, but the poor could substitute a pigeon for the lamb, as here, cf. v24. Mary's purification need not be performed at the temple, but the family is obviously in the vicinity, and for Luke, Jesus placement at the center of Israel's religious life is important in the development of the story. As for the presentation, it need not be performed at all. The Levites are God's firstborn possession such that the firstborn son is now redeemed by the payment of 5 shekels to a priest anywhere, Num.8:17f. Mary and Joseph's actions are obviously a response to all that has happened to them over the last year. As for Luke's telling of the story, he is most likely alluding to 1Samuel 1:21-28.

 

iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

 
Text - 2:22

Prophecy in the temple, v22-40. i] The presentation of the baby Jesus to God and the purification of Mary, v22-24. In Jewish custom, a woman was unclean for seven days after the birth of a son. Then for 40 days she cannot visit or take part in any religious activities (80 days for a girl child). After this period she is expected to offer a sacrifice to wash away her uncleanness - a pair of doves for a poor family. Also, since a firstborn child belongs to God, it is necessary to pay a ransom to a priest. Being close to Jerusalem, Joseph and Mary performed their duty at the temple.

kai "-" - and. Usually a transitional de is used to introduce a new episode and so advance the story, but from v21-40 Luke uses kai and so tightly connects the elements of this passage. See Culy.

oJte "when" - Forming a temporal clause, as NIV.

autwn "their" - of them. The genitive is possessive. Luke would know that only Mary required cleansing, but he possibly sees it as a family matter and so uses the plural pronoun, so Nolland, or he may just want to include Jesus in the proceedings, although obviously not in the purification.

tou kaqarismou (oV) gen. "purification" - of the cleansing. The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic; "the days which consist of the cleansing of them." A woman is ceremonially cleansed 40 days after the birth of a boy child, and 80 days after a girl. Meanwhile, she must not touch anything holy or enter the temple, cf. Lev.12.

kata + acc. "according to [the law]" - Establishing a standard, "in accordance with." The messiah comes onto the scene in accordance with God's law.

MwusewV (hV ewV) "of Moses" - The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "law", "the Mosaic law."

parasthsai (paristhmi) aor. inf. "to present" - to present. The infinitive is adverbial, forming a purpose clause, "in order to present ...." Some argue there is no tradition in Israel for the presentation of the firstborn, yet such exists, eg. Neh.10:35-36. The act of redeeming the child is obviously an integral element of the presentation, Ex.13:15. Samuel's presentation is obviously a literary type, 1Sam.1-2.

tw/ kuriw/ dat. "to the Lord" - Dative of indirect object. The presentation of Jesus has nothing to do with the purification of Mary, to which v24 applies.

 
v23

Luke has seemingly adjusted the text to reflect the Samuel story. For the consecration of the firstborn to the Lord see Exodus 13.2-15.

kaqwV "as" - Comparative conjunction.

en + dat. "in [the Law]" - Locative.

kuriou (oV) gen. "of the Lord" - of lord. The genitive is ablative, source/origin.

oJti "-" - that. Introducing a dependent statement, direct quote.

dianoigon (dianoigw) pres. part. "[every] firstborn [male]" - [every male] opening [womb]. As with pan, "every", the participle is neuter, probably meaning "every firstborn male creature", Barclay. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "male"; "every male who/which/that opens the womb."

klhqhsetai (kalew) fut. pas. "is to be" - will be called. The future tense here is imperatival; "is to be thought of as sacred to the Lord", Cassirer / "must be consecrated to the Lord", Moffatt.

aJgion adj. "consecrated" - holy. Standing in the nominative case, subject complement, lit. "every male opening the womb, holy to the Lord shall be called."

tw/ kuriw/ (oV) "to the Lord" - Dative of interest.

 
v24

tou dounai (didwmi) aor. inf. "to offer" - to give. A genitive articular infinitive usually forming a purpose clause. This offering is most likely for the postnatal purification service, Lev.12:8. As noted above, the use of pigeons, rather than animals, is a concession to the poor. "To make the sacrifice prescribed in the Lord's law", Barclay.

kata + acc. "in keeping with" - according to. Setting a standard, "in accordance with."

to eirhmenon (oJraw) perf. pas. part. "what is said" - the thing having been said. The participle functions as a substantive.

trugonwn (wn onoV) gen. "[a pair] of doves" - The genitive is adjectival, partitive/wholative.

peristerwn (a) gen. "[two young] pigeons" - The genitive is adjectival, partitive, although Culy opts of attributed.

 
v25

ii] The prophecy of Simon, v25-35. a) The prophet Simeon, waiting for "the consolation of Israel", meets Jesus' family in the temple, v25-27: At the temple there lived a godly man named Simeon. He was waiting for the dawning of the kingdom of God - "the consolation of Israel". The Spirit had revealed to him that he would not die until he saw the messiah. He now sees the fulfillment of this promise, and, in the power of the Spirit, utters a prophecy concerning Jesus.

kai "now" - and. Transitional, see kai above for de.

idou "-" - behold. Interjection often used to introduce a character into a story, cf. Levinsohn.

en + dat. "in [Jerusalem]" - Locative.

w|/ onoma (a) "called [Simeon]" - name to whom [Simeon]. Dative of possession; "whose name was Simeon."

dikaioV adj. "righteous" - just. As with "devout", functioning as a nominative predicate of an assumed verb to-be. Luke uses this word of Zechariah and Elizabeth, Joseph of Arimathea and Cornelius. Probably he intends a general sense such as "good", "honorable", "just", rather than "right before God / justified".

eulabhV adj. "[and] devout" - [and] reverent, conscientious. Here used in a positive sense of religious uprightness, and with "righteous" serves to emphasize the piety of Simeon; "he was a good man."

prosdecomenoV (prosdecomai) pres. part. "waiting for" - expecting. The participle is adjectival limiting "man". Here, the present tense caries the sense, "expectant waiting". The impression is that there is a group around Anna waiting for the paraklhsin "consolation / encouragement" ("redemption", v38) of Israel, probably along the lines of Isaiah 40:1, 49:13, etc. "On the outlook for the consolation of Israel", Moffatt.

tou Israhl gen. "of Israel" - The genitive is adjectival, either attributed, or possessive, "the encouragement that rightly belongs to Israel."

pneuma hJn aJgion ep auton "the Holy Spirit was upon him" - spirit was holy upon him. Unlike Elizabeth and Zechariah who are "filled", most likely in the Old Testament sense of the Spirit coming upon a person to achieve a specific end, here the Spirit is "upon" Simeon. Still, Simeon does proclaim a word from the Lord, an act often associated with the Spirit's filling, cf. v27, "moved by the Spirit." There is no sense that Simeon is given, or is baptized with the Spirit in response to faith in Christ. So, maybe the statement simply describes his holiness (even "his spirit was holy" given that "spirit" does not necessarily mean "the Holy Spirit") and therefore, a further description of this "good" man.

 
v26

h\n ... kecrhmatismenon (crhmatizw) perf. pas. part. "it had been revealed" - it had been revealed, warned, instructed. This perfect participle, with the imperfect of the verb "to be", forms a periphrastic pluperfect. It is often thought that a periphrastic construction is used to emphasize a durative, here possible repeated sense, but that seems unlikely here. The word is often used of divine revelations.

autw/ dat. pro. "to him" - Dative of indirect object.

uJpo + gen. "by [the Holy Spirit]" - Expressing agency, "by".

mh idein (eidon) aor. inf. "that he would not see" - to not see. The infinitive forms an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what the Holy Spirit revealed.

prin an idh/ (eidon) aor. subj. "before he had seen" - before he might see. Forming an indefinite temporal clause. Normally prin or prin h] (the variant prin h] exists) + inf. is used to form a temporal clause. The preposition prin with an + the subjunctive is used only here and in Acts 25:16.

kuriou (oV) gen. "[the] Lord's [Christ]" - [the anointed, messiah] of Lord. The genitive is probably ablative, source/origin; "the messiah/Christ from the Lord", ie., whose status as the anointed one / messiah / Christ comes from the Lord God, cf. 1Sam.24:6, 10. This phrase, sourced from the Old Testament, virtually becomes a messianic title, so "Christ the Lord", CEV.

 
v27

en "moved by [the Spirit]" - [he came] in [the S/spirit]. The preposition is obviously instrumental here. Again, "spirit" is not necessarily the Holy Spirit. His spiritual sensitivity led him to enter the outer temple courts (appropriate for women) at just the time when Jesus' family entered. "By an inspiration of the Spirit he came into the temple", Moffatt.

en tw/ eisagagein (eisagw) aor. inf. "when [the parents] brought in" - to bring in. This preposition with the articular infinitive is used to form a temporal clause, as NIV.

Ihsoun (ouV) "[the child] Jesus. Standing in apposition to "child".

tou poihsai (poiew) aor. inf. "to do" - to act/do. This construction, the genitive articular infinitive, usually forms a purpose clause, "in order to do". "To carry out the customary ceremonies of the law", Barclay.

peri + gen. "for [him]" - about, concerning. Expressing reference; "with reference to him."

to eiqismenon (eqizw) perf. pas. part. "what the custom" - the thing having been customary. The participle functions as a substantive, object of the verb "to do."

tou nomou (oV) gen. "of the Law" - The genitive is adjectival, probably defining, epexegetic, explaining what customs are in mind, ie. those of the Law.

kata + acc. "required" - according to [the thing having been customary of the law]. Establishing a standard; "in accordance with." Certainly the law required Mary's purification and the child's circumcision, cf. v21, but as already noted, the setting apart of the firstborn is fulfilled by the Levites. Luke is grounding the devotion of Joseph and Mary in the Law more to make a theological point than explain the nuts and bolts of the Law's requirements. The importance of the event for Luke is that Jesus fulfills the law from the moment of his birth and thus in his obedience we are able to find divine acceptance.

 
v28

b) Simon bursts into prophetic praise/prayer, praise which serves to identify the messianic credentials of Jesus, v28-32: The words of Simeon's prayer of praise are filled with joy. He thanks God that in his old age he has seen the fulfillment of God's promise to him; he has seen the messiah and so now his watching for the great day of the Lord is at an end. The Messiah will save his people, but not only will this salvation be for Israel, it will be for the Gentiles as well, Isa.49:6, Ac.1:8, Rom.15:8ff. This psalm, known in Latin as the Nunc Dimittis, uses much the same language as the Magnificat and the Benedictus. All three praise God for his intervention in human affairs. Evans notes that "it is a poetical construction of three closely knit couplets, each with lines of the same length, the last with synonymous parallelism." The psalm celebrates the salvation of Israel and of the world.

edexato (decomai) aor. mid. "took him" - received. The word meaning "received" implies a presentation such that the child is offered to God by presenting him to Simeon. As already noted, we have here an allusion to the offering of Samuel to God. Simeon, functioning as a priest, receives the child from the parents and blesses him; "he blessed God and said", Barclay.

euloghsen ton qeon (eulogew) aor. "praised God" - speak well of, praise, extol. Also "bless", in the sense of call down God's grace upon. Here we would assume Simeon was blessing Jesus in God's name, although the Nunc Dimittis does not present as a blessing, but is rather a psalm of praise to God. Should we just assume that it begins with "Blessed be ..."? cf. 1:64. Whether a blessing or not it is certainly prophetic.

 
v29

despota (hV ou) voc. "Sovereign Lord" - master.

kata + acc. "as [you promised]" - according to [the word of you]. Setting a standard.

sou gen. pro. "your [word]" - [the word] of you. The genitive is ablative expressing source/origin.

nun apolueiV (apoluw) pres. "you now dismiss" - now you release. The temporal adverb nun, "now", is emphatic by position and Bock argues that with the present tense of "release/dismiss" the phrase refers to death; "Lord, I am your servant and now I can die in peace", CEV. Yet, it may just be saying that Simeon is dismissed from his role as the Lord's watchman, watching for the coming messiah; "you are letting your servant go in peace", NJB.

en + dat. "in [peace]" - The preposition here is adverbial, modal, expressing manner, "peacefully". The word eirhnh here means something like the "well-being" possessed by a person who is favored by God, cf. Gen.46:30.

 
v30

oJti "for" - that. Here expressing cause/reason, explaining why Simeon can be dismissed from his service as the Lord's watchman.

mou gen. pro. "my [eyes]" - [the eyes] of me. The genitive is possessive. The phrase is a synecdoche where the whole is referenced by part of the whole; "I have seen your salvation."

sou gen. pro. "your" - of you. The genitive is ablative expressing source/origin, a salvation that comes from God, wrought by God (Subjective??).

to swthrion adj. "salvation" - the salvation. An adjective with an article forming a substantive with more substance than the noun by itself. Not "the saviour", as if Simeon is looking at Jesus, but "God's work of salvation"; "I have seen what you have done to save your people", CEV.

 
v31

oJ hJtoimasaV (eJtoimazw) "which you have prepared" - which you prepared. Here better "set up", "established", possibly "exhibited". The salvation of v30 is not so much prepared by God (which it is), but is set up by God for all to see in the messiah who is the child Jesus. "With my own eyes I have seen what you have done to save your people and foreign nations will also see this", CEV.

kata + acc. "in [the sight of]" - according to = before [the face]. The phrase is idiomatic, "a position in front of an object, with the implication of direct sight", Culy, giving the sense "all people will see it."

twn lawn (oV) gen. pl. "of [all] people" - of [all] the people. The genitive is adjectival, possessive in that the face belongs to all the people. Normally the word would mean the people of Israel, especially if in the singular, but here the plural "all the people" indicates that Gentiles are obviously included, cf. v32. "Which you have made ready for all nations to see", Cassirer.

 
v32

This verse is translated in numerous ways indicating that the syntax is unclear. The two lines of synonymous parallelism which make up the verse together stand in apposition to "salvation", v30. Both "light" and "glory", God's radiance and splendor, serve as the effective power of his salvation in the Old Testament, particularly in Isaiah, cf. 60:1-6. So here, "my eyes have seen your salvation ....... a light for the unveiling of (the darkness upon) the Gentiles and ...", Evans.

fwV "a light" - The "light" stands in apposition to "salvation", v30. As Jesus is by extension the embodiment of this salvation, he is also the light and thus, the revelation of God.

eiV "for" - to. Usually taken here to express purpose such that the "light" has as its aim the unveiling of the Gentiles, ie., their opening up to salvation. It is possible that it functions epexegetically such that it introduces an explanation of the light's character, "a light that unveils / brings salvation to the Gentiles."

apokaluyin (iV ewV) + gen. "revelation" - disclosure, revelation, uncovering, taking out into the open, making fully known, unveiling.

eqnwn (oV) gen. "to the Gentiles" - of Gentiles, nations, people. The genitive may be objective, so BAGD, adverbial, reference/respect, so Culy; "the unveiling with respect to the Gentiles." "Gentiles" is here preferred over "nations".

kai "and for" - and. Coordinative, so "and for."

doxan (a) "glory" - Parallel to "light". The salvation found in Christ is to Israel's glory.

laou (oV) "to [your] people" - of people [of you]. The genitive is adverbial, reference/respect; "with respect to ..."

Israhl gen. "Israel" - Standing in apposition to "people."

 
v33

c) Simon's blessing and prophecy, v36-38: Joseph and Mary are perplexed by all this attention, but Simon has more to say. The prophecy of Simeon is in stark contrast to his prayer of praise. Although messiah will bring "glory" to Israel, he will not be welcomed by all of Israel. He will bring division such that some will fall and some will rise - not all will stand with him. Those against him will attack him such that he will be a suffering messiah. This conflict will both drive people to a decision which will expose the hidden self, and will bring anguish to Mary.

kai "-" - and. Connective; introducing the next element in the story, here an observation concerning the parent's response.

autou gen. pro. "the child's" - [the father] of him [and the mother]. The genitive is adjectival, expressing relationship.

h\n ..... qaumazonteV (qaumazw) pres. part. "marveled" - were being amazed. A periphrastic imperfect construction possibly emphasizing aspect. The imperfect verb to-be takes the singular person since Joseph and Mary are viewed as a single unit - a married couple.

epi + dat. "at" - Here expressing cause, "on the basis of."

toiV laloumenoiV (lalew) pres. pas. part. "what was said" - the thing being said. The participle functions as a substantive; "were astonished to hear what was said about him", Barclay.

peri + gen. "about [him]" - Expressing reference; "about / with reference to / concerning [him]."

 
v34

kai "then" - and. As v33.

euloghsen (eulogew) aor. "blessed" - Simeon's words clearly form the blessing, but are prophetic none-the-less.

keitai (kaimai) "[this child] is destined" - [this one] is placed, appointed = destined. The imagery of the stumbling-block is possibly behind this verse and therefore the word may be understood as "placed", as of a stone placed during the building of a wall, cf. Isa.8:14-15. Many will stumble over this stone, but some will rise up. "In response to him (Christ) the people will be divided, some falling and some rising", Johnson. Of course, there may be no allusion here to the stumbling-block. Simeon's words address the future of Israel, a future where the self-righteous will fall down and the humble will rise up and this in the face of God's coming messiah; "this child will cause many people in Israel to fall and others to stand", CEV.

eiV "to cause" - to. Here expressing purpose. The phrase keitai eiV, "is set for / is destined to" is common idiom.

pollwn adj. "of many" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive / subjective.

en + dat. "in [Israel]" - Locative, as NIV.

eiV "to be" - to. Expressing purpose again.

shmeion (on) "a sign" - a sign, miracle. Here meaning "ensign, banner."

antilegomenon (antilegw) perf. pas. part. "that will be spoken against" - being spoken against, opposed. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "sign". The child is the sign of salvation, but will be "a sign opposed", and those who oppose will forfeit their salvation. "A message from God which men will reject", Barclay.

 
v35

o{pwV an + subj. "so that [.... will be revealed]" - This construction usually forms a purpose / hypothetical result clause; "in order that ..."

dialogismoi (oV) "thoughts" - The word tends to have a negative sense. The "sign opposed" will expose the hidden intent of those aligned against God.

ek + gen. "of [many hearts]" - out of, from [many hearts]. Expressing source/origin. "It will be his work to lay bare the secret thoughts of many hearts", Barclay.

kai ... de. "and" - and .... also. The conjunction de is missing from some manuscripts, but is probably original. Levinsohn sees in the doubling up of the connective conjunctions kai and de an abrupt move in the account to Mary. Most commentators treat the clause as a parenthesis "(Yea, a sword shall pierce through they own soul also)", AV. The NIV solves the problem by reversing the two clauses of the verse. Not all commentators agree with this approach. Nolland translates the verse "and of you yourself also a sword will go through your soul, that the thoughts of many souls will be revealed." Simeon is now addressing Mary and telling her how the "sign apposed" will affect her, along with her son. A sword will pass through the child's soul (ie. he will be killed) and "you yourself also" will face the same death, although vicariously as a mother. "And moreover ....."

dieleusetai (diercomai) fut. mid. "will pierce" - will pass through. "And you Mary, will suffer as if you had been stabbed", CEV.

 
v36

iii] The witness of Anna, v36-38: Anna, a devout widow, recognizes that the baby Jesus will realize the messianic hopes of Israel and responds in praise and proclamation.

kai "also" - and. See v22 for kai used instead of a transitional de.

profhtiV (iV idoV) "a prophetess" - a prophet. Nominative predicate of the verb to-be. A prophet is a person specially endowed to tell forth the word of God. Note that the record of female prophets in the scriptures indicates that a simplistic approach to male authority, when it comes to a word ministry in the church, is fraught with danger. A conservative brother of mine has argued that the only way through this problem is by holding that prophecy ended with the New Testament period and that therefore the issue of female prophets no longer applies today. So, are we to say that a woman could be a prophet if prophecy was an ongoing ministry in the church, but not a teacher? Do we then argue that women were allowed do the more important job, but not the lesser one????

Fanouhl gen. "of Phanuel" - The genitive is adjectival expressing relationship.

ek + gen. "of [the tribe]" - out of, from [tribe]. Expressing source/origin.

Ashr gen. "of Asher" - The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "tribe"; "the tribe which goes by the name of Asher."

probebhkuia (probainw) perf. part. "she was [very] old" - having become advanced [in many days]. The participle with the implicit verb to-be h\n forms a periphrastic pluperfect construction. Her advanced years is given significance - a sign of God's blessing and wisdom. Note how Luke balances the male and female roles in this passage, as elsewhere in his gospel.

zhsasa (zaw) aor. part. "she had lived" - having lived. As noted by some commentators, the Gk. in the sentence covering v36-37 is rather clumsy. Plummer thinks that the participle is adverbial, causal, ie. Anna is viewed as a woman of advanced years because from her virginity (pubity, marriage?) she lived with her husband for 7 years prior to becoming a widow, in which state she lived a further 84 years (or e{wV "until" she was 84, variant wJV, "as, like / when").

meta + gen. "with [her husband]" - Expressing association.

apo + gen. "after [her marriage]" - from [the virginity of her]. Here expressing separation to form a temporal statement; "from her time of virginity." The genitive authV is adjectival, possessive, limiting "virginity / marriage".

 
v37

e{wV "until" - See above.

tou iJerou (on) gen. "[she never left] the temple" - [was not withdrawing, departing] of the temple. The genitive is ablative, expressing separation.

latreuousa (latreuw) pres. part. "worshiped" - serving, ministering. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the negated main verb "was departing". Often used of service to God. This word is regularly confused with the word for "adoration", or as we would commonly say, "worship." Yet, it is a ministry word, and in Anna's case, ministry to God in the temple, a ministry which she often expressed in prayer and fasting. She was regularly in the temple, or constantly in the temple, although probably not sleeping in it. "Night and day she served God in the temple", CEV.

nhsteiaiV (a) dat. "fasting" - As with "praying", the dative is instrumental, modifying "worshiped".

 
v38

epistasa (episthmi) aor. part. "coming up to them" - having stood beside. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "she gave thanks."

auth/ th/ wJra/ dat. "at that very moment" - at the hour. Dative of time.

anqwmologeito (anqomologeomai) imperf. mid. "she gave thanks" - she was praising, giving thanks, confessing. The imperfect, being durative, may express ongoing praise and thanksgiving, although the imperfect is often used for speech.

tw/ qew/ dat. "to God" - Dative of direct object.

peri + gen. "about [the child]" - about [him]. Expressing reference; "with reference to, concerning."

toiV prosdecomenoiV (prosdecomai) pres. mid. part. "who were looking forward" - [all] the ones anticipating, expecting, waiting for. Referring to an expectant class of Israelites. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "all", as NIV. Anna speaks with a select group, those waiting for the redemption of Israel, Isa.59:9.

lutrwsin (iV ewV) "the redemption" - redemption, ransoming. Today the word "liberation" would probably better express its sense; "the liberation of Jerusalem." The assumed genitive "of Jerusalem" may be treated as objective, "liberation for Jerusalem", although better adjectival, possessive, "Jerusalem's redemption"; "everyone who hoped to see Jerusalem redeemed", Rieu. Culy suggests an assumed locative dative, of place, thus the variant en Ierousalhm.

 
v39

iv] The family return to Galilee, v39-40: Joseph and Mary complete "all their duties under the law" and return to Nazareth. The implication is that they have called into Jerusalem while traveling from Bethlehem to Nazareth. For Jesus, life proceeds under God's favor ("grace") and he became "strong and wise."

kai "-" - and. See v22.

wJV "when" - as, like / when. Here the conjunction is obviously temporal serving to form a temporal clause, as NIV.

ta kata + acc. "[everything] required by [the Law]" - [all] that which corresponds to [the law]. Expressing a standard; "in accordance with, corresponding to", and with the article ta forms an adjectival clause which limits "everything / all"; "everything that was according to the law", Culy. Again Luke makes a point of noting that Jesus fulfills the law.

kuriou (oV) gen. "of the Lord" - of Lord. The genitive is ablative, source/origin, the law that comes out of, from the Lord.

Nazareq "of Nazareth" - Like Jerusalem, being indeclinable, the word is assumed to be genitive by the NIV, adjectival, limiting town.

 
v40

The family return to Nazareth, v40.

de "and" - but, and. Transitional.

ekrataiouto (krataiow) imperf. pas. "[grew and] became strong" - was being strengthened, made strong, growing strong, becoming strong. Here of mental and moral growth, maturity, even vigor, but not muscular strength. cf. 1:80. "As the child grew to maturity", NJB.

plhroumenon (plhrow) pres. pas. part. "he was filled" - being filled. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the two imperfect verbs "grew" and "became strong.

sofia/ (a) dat. "with wisdom" - Instrumental dative of content. Parallel to "he advanced in wisdom", v52. The Lord's servant's are "full of wisdom" in the sense of being able to understand and explain the knowledge of God. Jesus "being filled with wisdom" obviously goes hand in hand with his growth in maturity. Syntactically the "was being strengthened" and "being filled" are so linked that "being filled with wisdom" either defines the strengthening, or is at least a complement of it. "He became strong and full of wisdom", Phillips.

cariV (iV itoV) "the grace" - grace, favor. Parallel with "in favour with God" v52. "The blessing of God was upon him." Greek "it", neuter, rather than "him", meaning "the child."

qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - The genitive is ablative expressing source/origin; "the grace that flows from God."

ep (epi) + acc. "upon [him]" - Here with a spacial / locative sense; "on, upon." , and then directs a word of prophecy to Mary which serves to identify Jesus as a suffering messiah/servant, v34-35.

 

Luke Introduction

Exposition

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