New Testament Greek Syntax
The Nominative Case
Functions as the subject of a finite verb indicating who or what produced the action.
1. Dependent Nominative
A nominative substantive functioning in relation to a finite verb
i] Subject Nominative
A substantive in the nominative case that is the subject of a finite verb.
THE REST were hardened
oiJ loipoi epwrwuhsan
ii] Predicate Nominative
A substantive in the nominative case that is the object of a linking verb to the subject
The linking verbs express a state of being rather than an action:
eimi, ginomai, uparw and the passive of kalew
God is LOVE
oJ qeoV agaph estin
iii] Nominative of Apposition
A substantive in apposition with another substantive in the nominative case, usually also takes the nominative case, except where the writer is sloppy, eg. Revelation.
Elizabeth his WIFE conceived
sunelaben Elisabet hJ gunh autou
iv] Nominative of Appellation
A proper noun in the nominative case irrespective of its position in the sentence
He has the name APOLLYON
onoma ecei Apolluwn
2. Independent Nominative
A nominative substantive functioning independently in the sentence
i] Nominative Absolute
A nominative substantive functioning in the sentence without any grammatical connections.
eg. Titles, addresses, salutations
ii] Nominative Pendens
An independent substantive (eg. participle) in the nominative case that is linked to the rest of the sentence by a pronoun which takes its case independently of the nominative subject.
Identify by beginning the sentence: "With reference to ....
THE ONE WHO OVERCOMES, I will make HIM a pillar
oJ nikwn poihsw auton stulon
iii] Parenthetic Nominative
The subject of an independent clause which serves as a parenthesis in a sentence
The sentence may or may not have a different subject.
There came a man sent from God; his NAME was John
egeneto anqrwpoV apestalmenoV para qeou, onoma autw/ IwannhV
Virtually an independent nominative
behold my MOTHER and my BROTHERS
ide hJ mhthr mou kai oiJ adelfoi mou
GRACE to you, and PEACE from God
cariV uJmin kai eirhnh apo qeou
vi] Titles of books
THE REVELATION of John
vii] Proverbial expressions
A substantive in the nominative, used in proverbial expressions that have no finite verb.
THE ONE WHO GRASPS the wise in their own craftiness
oJdrassomenoV touV sofouV en th/ panourgia/ autwn
viii] Used with expressions of time
A nominative used in an expression of time where the accusative might be exprected.
I have compassion upon the multitude because already they have remained with me FOR THREE DAYS
splagcnizomai epi ton oclon oJti hdh hJmerai treiV prosmenousin moi
Some general rules
i] Granville Sharp's Rule (modified)
Where there are two coordinate singular personal (not proper) nouns, the repetition of the article distinguishes them, while a single introductory article associates them.
ii] Colwell's Rule
Definite predicate nouns that follow the verb usually take the article
Definite predicate nouns that precede the verb usually lack the article
iii] Canon of Apollonius
With two nouns, where one is depending on the other, either both have an article or both lack it. This rule is not always evident in the NT especially when the first noun follows a preposition.
in the Spirit of God
en tw/ pneumati tou qeou
iv] Sexist language
Translations of the Gk. text on this site will tend to follow the convention today of replacing the singular "he/she" with the plural "they", etc.
*A less than common usage*
For Greek font requirements see Syntax Notes
A Commentary on the Greek New Testament Exegetical Notes