1. The early church in Jerusalem, 1:1-5:42

v] Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, 2:14-35

b) The sermon proper - Christ and his resurrection


After the pentecostal experience of tongue-speaking, Peter sets out to preach to the gathered crowd. First, he answers the charge of drunkenness and then gives witness to Jesus' resurrection, linking this to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.


The resurrection of Jesus, the crucified one, testifies to the fact that he is now Lord. To stand approved under his reign, it is necessary to repent for the forgiveness of sins. By so doing, the believing person will receive the long-promised blessings of the covenant.


i] Context: See 2:14-21. There are three parts to Peter's sermon: The introduction in v14-21 explains the tongue-speaking phenomenon with reference to Old Testament prophecy. Then, in the body of the sermon, v22-36, Peter proclaims the gospel (kerygma), dealing with the resurrection and the consequent Lordship of Christ in v22-32, and the resultant outpouring of the Spirit in v33-36. Verse 36 restates the proposition that Jesus is both Christ / messiah and Lord. The sermon concludes with a call for repentance in v37-39.


ii] Structure: Christ, his resurrection and the gift of the Spirit:

Peter's Pentecost sermon, v14-39:

Introduction, v14-21;

The charge of drunkenness. Text Joel 2:28-32.

Sermon Proper, v22-36:

Christ is both Lord and Messiah. Text Psalm 110:1:

Proposition, v22-24;

Scriptural support, v25-28;

Argument #1, v29-32;

Argument #2, v33-35;

Conclusion, v36.

Response, v37-39:

Repent and be baptised ...

for the forgiveness of sins ....

and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Appendix, v40-41.


iii] Interpretation:

Peterson argues that Peter's sermon serves three functions in Luke's account of the gospel:

iIt serves to explain the pentecostal event and answer the question of the bystanders. Joel's prophecy serves as the basis of this explanation, making the point that "this would happen as an eschatological event before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord";

iThe sermon serves as an opportunity "to explain the significance of Jesus in the plan of God for his people" and to show that "God is the hidden actor behind Jesus' mighty works, his death, his resurrection, his exaltation and giving of the Spirit, and his enthronement as Lord and Christ";

iFinally, the sermon serves as a model of how the gospel is preached, here to Jews, and how its preaching changes lives. "The speech not only interprets what has happened; it causes something to happen. The audience makes a shattering discovery and is moved to repentance in large numbers", Tannehill.

So, what we have in the sermon is the following: a refutatio, a refutation of slanderous claims; an apologia, this is what we believe, the kerygma / the gospel; and a teaching model of how to present the gospel - the fulfilment of scripture being particularly relevant to Jews.


The gospel in Acts: Dodd in The Apostolic Preaching and its Development, notes six elements in the gospel sermons found in Acts, although not all six elements are found in each sermon:

• The age of fulfilment has dawned;

• This has taken place through the life, death and resurrection of Jesus;

• By virtue of the resurrection, Jesus has been exalted at the right hand of God, as messianic head of the new Israel;

• The Holy Spirit in the church is the sign of Christ's present power and glory;

• The messianic age will shortly reach its consummation in the return of Christ;

• A concluding appeal for repentance. This appeal comes with the offer of forgiveness and the gift of the Holy Spirit, and the promise of salvation to those who enter the elect community.


The foundational elements of the gospel: The format of the gospel is established in the synoptic gospels and carries through into the gospel sermons in Acts. The euaggelion, "important news", presents as a three part announcement concerning the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy, the coming / establishment / realisation of the kingdom of God, and the need to call upon the name of the Lord:

The time is fulfilled,

the kingdom of God is at hand,

repent and believe the gospel.

iThe bulk of the gospel message, particularly when delivered to a Jewish audience, focuses on the first part, the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The message proclaims Jesus as the long awaited messiah, the one who comes to gather a people, a nation, a new Israel, to the living God.

iThe second part focuses on the inevitable consequence of Christ's completed work, namely, the kingdom is upon us - salvation, in and through Jesus, is freely offered to both Jew and Gentile. There are two sub-divisions in the way this news is presented:

iThe news can be presented as either, or both, now / not yet;

iThe news can be presented as either blessings or cursings / good news, or bad news.

These elements are only evident in part; sometimes the news is good news, and other times it is bad news. The news is also often understated, although obvious, certainly to a Jew. Jesus is Lord, having risen from the dead, and as such all the promised blessings of the covenant are now available for all who call upon the name of the Lord, as are the cursings for those who ignore the news.

iThe third part focuses on the necessary response to the gospel message, namely, turning to Christ and relying on his completed work on our behalf. Depending on the circumstances, the three major parts of the gospel are usually present in gospel presentations in Acts.

Of particular interest is Paul's Areopagus sermon delivered to Gentiles in Athens. The "time is fulfilled" element, applicable to Jews, is replaced by an argument leading to the conclusion that the kingdom is come, explained in the terms of humanity facing judgment, and this because Jesus is Lord, having risen from the dead.; See 17:16-34.

It is important to note the lack of any reference to Jesus' substitutionary death in Paul's sermon to Gentile philosophers. They would not easily understand the significance of a blood sacrifice as an atonement for sin, as is the case for the unchurched today.


Peter's use of Psalm 110:1, v34-35. Peter argues that David cannot be the person referred to in the Psalm as he has not ascended into heaven, but rather is still in his grave, the site of which is commonly known. Only Jesus, a descendent of David, has risen from the dead and therefore the Psalm obviously refers to him.

The point Peter draws from the Psalm is clear enough: "the resurrection indicates Jesus' position at the Father's right hand, as the one who is seated at God's side. From this place of honour and unique glory, Jesus mediates the blessing of the Spirit and salvation in accord with the promise of God's plan. This reveals who Jesus is ..... tightly associating Jesus with God's unique glory", Bock.


What Christology applies to Luke's use of the word "Lord"? Christ is both kurion kai criston, "Lord and Christ / Messiah", v36. It seems likely that 2:21 is the first time in Acts when a text applying to God is applied to Jesus, "anyone who calls on the name of the Lord (Jesus) will be saved." This assumes, of course, that the one who pours out "my Spirit" is Jesus, cf., v18. This issue has never been resolved in Christendom with the Western church holding that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, and the Eastern church arguing that the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone.

Commentators are divided on whether Luke is using the title "Lord" for Jesus in the same sense as it is used of Yahweh. Certainly, in the present context, Jesus is Lord "over salvation and the distribution of salvation's benefits", Bock. If Luke is not confirming the divinity of Jesus, then he may be using the word "Lord" in the sense of the exalted one, the messiah who is "exalted to the right hand of God", so Dunn. As "Christ" is the title understood by Jews to refer to the messiah and commonly used that way by Luke for Jews, so "Lord" may well be commonly used by Luke as a messianic title suitable for Gentiles. If this is the case, then both titles refer to Jesus as the foretold cosmic messiah who, on behalf of God's new people, receives the authority to reign over an eternal heavenly kingdom.


iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 2:22

Peter's Pentecost sermon, v22-36: i] Peter lays down the central plank of his sermon, proclaiming that Jesus is Lord, God's anointed one, Messiah, v22-24. Jesus' "mighty works", or more rightly, "powerful signs of the kingdom", demonstrate the "finger of God" upon the people of Israel, and thus proclaim the inevitable truth that the new age of the kingdom of God has come upon mankind, cf., 11:20. Indeed, "God has visited his people", 7:16. Yet, God's chosen-one was handed over to "wicked men", ie., those apart from the Law and covenants - pagan Rome. So, the messiah suffered, as it was foreordained he would. Yet, a higher court overturned the court of pagan Rome and reversed its death-sentence; it is not possible for death to hold the Lord, God's anointed one. As it was ordained that the Lord / messiah would suffer, so it was ordained that he would enter glory, and this he has done by rising from the dead.

Israhlitai (hV ou) "[men] of Israel / [fellow] Israelites"" - [men,] israelites, [listen to these words]. Vocative, standing in apposition to "men"; "My fellow Jews", ...

andra (hr droV) "a man" - [jesus the nazarene] a man. Standing in apposition to "Jesus of Nazareth".

apodedeigmenon (apodeiknumi) perf. part. "accredited" - having been designated, appointed, attested, authenticated. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting man. As can be seen, the word can convey a number of meanings. Bruce opts for "attested", Barrett for "appointed", but possibly the less technical meaning of "a man marked out", "designated" ("approved", Calvin) is intended. "Authenticated", "proved", Phillips/CEV.., is certainly not acceptable, as if Christ's divine appointment needs to be proved to anyone.

apo + gen. "by [God]" - from [god]. Here the preposition expresses agency, "by", a rare usage. We would expect uJpo.

eiV + acc. "to [you]" - into [you]. Here the preposition probably expresses advantage, "for you."

dunamesi (iV ewV) dat. "by miracles" - by / with miracles, mighty works [and wonders and signs]. The dative is instrumental, expressing means. Christ was appointed / designated with accompanying signs. Note that in the New Testament this word is always used with "signs" - signs and wonders.

oi|V dat. pro. "which [God did]" - which [god did]. Dative by attraction.

en + dat. "among [you]" - in [midst of you]. Local, expressing space.

di (dia) + gen. "through [him]" - through, by means of [him]. Expressing agency.

kaqwV "as" - just as [you yourselves know]. Comparative; "All of you know this", CEV.


Peter doesn't mince his words here; guilt rests on the people - aneilate, "you killed him." The anomwn, "lawless, wicked ones" (possibly referring to the religious authorities rather than the Roman authorities), aided the people.

touton pro. "this man" - this, this one. Resumptive = "Jesus of Nazareth", v22.

ekdoton adj. "was handed over to you" - was delivered up, given up to you. Indirect object "to you" assumed; "Betrayed", Williams.

wJrismenh/ (oJrizw) perf. part. "[by God's] set [purpose]" - by the having been determined, set [purpose and foreknowledge]. The dative is best taken as instrumental, as NIV, although see Wallace for dative of rule; "in conformity with", p157; "this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God", ESV. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting the noun boulh/ "purpose / council [of God]." There is no personal failure in the betrayal and execution of Jesus because "God himself foresaw and planned the whole", Barrett. "Betrayed in the predestined course of God's deliberate purpose", Moffatt.

tou qeou "God's" - of god. The genitive is adjectival, usually treated as verbal, subjective.

dia + gen. "with the help of [wicked men]" - through, by means of [the hand of lawless men]. Instrumental, expressing agency. An example of the divine will being realised through the freely determined actions of corrupt people who are then held accountable for their actions. A classic example of this may be found in the Babylonian empire's invasion of Judea, an invasion which served as an instrument of God's judgment upon the people of Israel, but which none-the-less placed Babylon under divine judgment for its actions.

prosphxanteV (prosphgnumi) aor. part. "by nailing him to the cross" - [you killed him] having affixed him to the cross. The participle is adverbial, probably instrumental expressing means, "by means of", as NIV, but possibly modal, expressing the manner of the killing. "You nailed up [and murdered]", Phillips.


lusaV (luw) aor. part. "freeing" - [god raised whom] having loosed, released. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner in with the action of being raised is accomplished, or instrumental, expressing means, "by freeing him from ....", or possibly temporal, "when he freed him from...." "Having destroyed the bitter pains of death." The antecedent of the accusative relative pronoun o}, "whom", is touton, "this one", v23.

tou qanatou (oV) gen. "the agony [of death]" - [the birth pains] of death. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, "death pangs"; "the throes of death." The word wdinaV, "birthing pains", is often used figuratively of the suffering associated with the coming (birthing) of the messianic age. Jesus is "loosed" from these "pangs" in his resurrection. This idea is a bit cumbersome. Barrett's opinion is that the intended meaning is "cords / bindings of death", cf., Psalm 17:6, 114:3, where the LXX has read "pangs" for the MT "cords of death /Sheol". "God set him free from death", CEV.

kaqoti conj. "because" - for, because. Causal conjunction explaining why Jesus was freed from the agony of death, "because ...". Jesus "is the one for whom it was impossible that the resurrection from the death should not take place", Barth.

krateisqai (kratew) pres. pas. inf. "to keep" - [it was not possible him] to be grasped, taken possession of, held. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the negated verb "it was not possible". The accusative subject of the infinitive is auton, "him".

uJp (uJpo) + gen. "-" - by [it]. Expressing agency, "by the agency of death"; "it was not possible to be held by it", ESV.


ii] Peter now confirms his claims through the testimony of scripture, v25-28. Peter uses this Psalm of David as a text in support of Jesus' fulfilment of the messiah's promised deliverance from death. Psalm 16:8-11, a psalm of David, is usually treated as messianic. The theme of protection from death is interpreted by Peter as deliverance from death. The LXX certainly enables this interpretation, although the MT does not. This, of course, raises interesting questions as to the authority of scripture.

gar "-" - for. Transitional, or establishing a logical connection.

proorwmhn (prooraw) imperf. "I saw" - [david says of him] i was foreseeing / saw before time. More likely, "have always before my eyes." Imperfect indicating an ongoing seeing and here with the force of the perfect tense. "I have ever fixed my eyes upon the Lord", Weymouth.

dia pantoV "always" - [the lord before me] through all. Temporal use of the preposition, idiomatic = "always", as NIV.

oJti "because" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the Lord is always before him.

ek "at [my right hand]" - [he is] from [the right of me]. An idiomatic locative use of this preposition prompted by the partitive sense "of my right hand" = "at my right hand."

iJna + subj. "I will not [be shaken]" - that [i may not be shaken]. The NIV treats this construction as nominal, with iJna introducing an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech, expressing a statement of faith prompted by the knowledge that the Lord is at his right hand. None-the-less, Barrett suggests that Luke would have understood the construction in its usual Greek sense as introducing an adverbial clause, final, expressing purpose; "God stands at my right hand (as armed defender, or perhaps as advocate) in order that I may not be moved (by my enemies)." Consecutive, expressing result, is also possible, "with the result that ....", so Culy.


dia touto "therefore" - because of this. This causal construction usually takes an inferential sense, drawing a logical conclusion, as NIV.

hgalliasato (agalliaomai) aor. "[my tongue] rejoices" - [the heart of me was cheered up and the tongue of me] was exalted, rejoiced exceedingly. "My words will be joyful", CEV.

eti de kai "also" - but/and in addition and = also. Forward referencing construction; "Besides, moreover".

hJ sarx (x koV) "[my] body" - the flesh [of me will rest, settle, nest, dwell]. Nominative subject of the verb "to dwell." The TEV gets into a tangle trying to express the notion of the mortality of the "flesh" as against the hope of immortality, summed up in the phrase "rest assured in hope." The CEV cuts through it all with "I will live in hope." The sense is of the mortal body resting in the grave secure in the hope of the resurrection, "my body also will rest in hope", Weymouth. The term, "At rest", is often used of a deceased person today, but the imagery is useless without the additional "in hope" of the resurrection. As Billy Connolly once said of the occupants of a cemetery, "They're not resting, they're dead!"

ep (epi) + dat. "in [hope]" - in [hope]. Possibly causal, "on the basis of / because of hope", hope that "you will not abandon my soul to Hades."


oJti "because" - that. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the psalmist rests in hope; "because ......"

thn yuchn (h) "-" - [you will not forsake, desert, leave behind] the soul [of me]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to forsake." The "soul" is the very self, a person's living being.

eiV + acc. "to" - into. Expressing direction of action and/or arrival at.

aJdhn (hV ou) "the grave / the realm of the dead" - hades. This noun refers to the place, or abode, of the dead, including both the righteous and the unrighteous, equivalent to the Hebrew term Sheol*. "Thou wilt not leave me in the grave forsaken", Weymouth.

ton oJsion adj. "[your] Holy One" - [nor will you give] the holy one [of you]. This accusative nominal phrase functions as the subject of the infinitive "to see." "Thy godly one", "devoted servant", TEV. Note how the TEV tries to bring out the two ideas of devotion and dedication carried in this descriptive of the King Messiah.

idein (oJraw) aor. inf. "to see" - to see [corruption]. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "will give" = "will allow to see."


moi dat. pro. " to me" - [you have made known] to me. Dative of indirect object.

zwhV (h) gen. "of life" - [the ways] of life. The genitive is adjectival, descriptive, idiomatic / destination; "the paths that lead to life." Interestingly, the Hebrew text has "path" singular, the path to life through obedience. Why does Luke have "paths"? Given the context, Luke is probably speaking about the way out of the grave into a resurrected life, yet was there more than one way for the messiah? Surely not! The "way" for messiah is the cross.

eufrosuhnV (h) gen. "with joy" - [you fill me] of joy. The genitive is adjectival, descriptive, idiomatic / content; "you fill me full of joy."

meta + gen. "in" - with [the presence of you]. Expressing association / accompaniment, but possibly adverbial, expressing manner; "you will, by your presence, fill me with gladness", Cassirer.


iii] Peter justifies the application of the Psalm to Jesus, v29-32. Peter notes that David saw decay, his tomb being near Siloam for all to see. One of his descendants must take the throne of God's eternal kingdom, and obviously that descendent is Jesus, the one whose body did not suffer decay (for God raised him up). To this, Peter and the other disciples are witnesses. So, Peter's point is that David's words are not directed to himself, but are prophetically addressed to a greater descendent.

adelfoi (oV) voc. "Brothers" - [men], brothers. Vocative, standing in apposition to "men". The members of the congregation are "brothers" in that they are fellow Jews, "fellow Israelites", Williams.

epein (eipon) aor. inf. "tell" - to speak [with confidence toward you about the patriarch david is being right, permissible]. The infinitive forms a nominal phrase which stands as the subject of the periphrastic construction "is being right" (the verb to-be is assumed) For a complementary classification see plhrwqhnai, 1:16. Culy thinks that the unexpected use of a participle here serves to convey politeness; "If I may be permitted to say with boldness ....." Peter makes the point that since David's tomb is nearby, then obviously the Psalm wasn't addressing him, since he has seen corruption. This is stirring the pot somewhat, given that Jewish tradition has David as one of the seven immortals.

meta + gen. "-" - with [boldness]. Adverbial use of the preposition, expressing manner, "confidently", as NIV; "with no fear of contradiction", Barclay.

oJti "that" - that. Here introducing an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech, expressing what Peter is confidently able to say about David, namely "that he was buried and that his grave is in our midst to this very day", Cassirer.

kai "-" - [he died] and = also [and was buried]. Adverbial, adjunctive.

en + dat. "with [us]" - [and the tomb of him is] in = with [us]. Expressing association / accompaniment; "with us."

acri + gen. "to [this day]" - until [this day]. Temporal, expressing time up to a point; "his grave is in our midst to this very day", Cassirer.


David, as a prophet, looks ahead to the fulfilment of God's promise to him. The promise was delivered by Nathan and concerned a perpetual Davidic dynasty, 2Sam.7:12-16.

oun "but" - therefore. Inferential, drawing a logical conclusion: "[David] therefore, being a prophet and having known ......., (v31) having foreseen, he spoke about the resurrection of Jesus Christ that (by making the point that) he was neither abandoned to destruction nor [that] his body saw corruption." Peter is alluding to Psalm 132:11.

uJparcwn (uJparcw) pres. part. "he was [a prophet]" - being [a prophet, and having known]. The participle may form a temporal clause, "while he was alive he was a prophet", Phillips, possibly causal, "because he was a prophet", although properly attendant circumstance expressing action accompanying the main verb "he spoke", v31.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what David knew.

autw/ dat. pro. "him" - [god swore] to him. Dative of indirect object.

o{rkw/ (oV) "on oath" - in = with an oath. The dative is instrumental, expressing means; "by means of an oath."

kaqisai (kaqizw) aor. inf. "that he would place" - to cause to sit, [from the fruit of the loins of him, upon the throne of him]. The infinitive introduced an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech, expressing what God promised. The preposition ek, "from", expresses source / origin, and refers to a descendent of David, the Davidic messiah, who will sit on David's throne.


The content of the prophecy, with reference to v27, about the descendant of David, is that "the essential person of Jesus lives on; his flesh did not suffer corruption", Barrett.

proidwn (proeidon) aor. part. "seeing what was ahead" - having foreseen it. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "he spoke", so translated as a simple secondary verb; "he knew what would happen (ie., the resurrection of the messiah) and so he told us ..."

peri + gen. "of [the resurrection]" - [he spoke] concerning, about. Expressing reference / respect; "about / concerning the resurrection".

tou Cristou (oV) gen. "of Christ" - [the resurrection] of christ. The genitive is adjectival, identifying the possession of a derivative characteristic. Culy classifies the genitive as verbal, objective.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing the content of the prophecy, what "he told us."

oute ..... oute "not ..... nor" - neither [was he abandoned into destruction] nor [the body of him saw corruption]. Negated coordinative construction. Neither would the messiah's soul be lost, nor would his body decompose in the grave.


Peter is fulfilling his apostolic role as a witness to Jesus' messiahship, cf., Lk.24:48. Note how the focus of the apostolic preaching tends to be on the resurrection, a resurrection which implies the ascension of Jesus to his rightful place beside the Ancient of Days, ie., an inclusive resurrection / ascension.

touton pro. "this [Jesus]" - this [jesus god raised]. Resumptive and emphatic by position, "Jesus is the man we are speaking of", Cassirer.

ouJ gen. "-" - of which. This relative pronoun may be masculine, thus referring to Jesus "of whom we are all witnesses", or neuter, referring to the resurrection of Jesus, "of which [fact] we are all witnesses." The latter is preferred. The genitive is probably adverbial, reference / respect; "with respect to which ..."

hJmeiV "we [are all witness of the fact]" - we [are all witnesses]. Emphatic by use and position.


iv] Answering the obvious question, "where is Jesus now?", Peter speaks of Jesus' ascension and exaltation to the right hand of God, and his bestowal of the Spirit, v33-35. This Christ has now ascended on high to take his throne at the right hand of God, receiving from the Father the right and power to pour out the Spirit on the children of God. In this way, he fulfils the words of Psalm 110:1. He serves as the Davidic king who sits at the right hand of God. He is the exalted messiah, ruler over heaven and earth. This fact is evidenced in the pentecostal experience of ecstatic prophecy (tongue speaking) just witnessed by the crowd.

oun "-" - therefore. Inferential, drawing a logical conclusion; "having been exalted ... and having received ..... therefore, he has poured out ...." = "now that he has been exalted to the right hand of God, and now that he has received from the Father the Holy Spirit, whom he had promised, he has given this demonstration of the Spirit ....", Barclay.

uJywqeiV (uJyow) aor. pas. part. "exalted" - having been lifted up, exalted. The participle, as with lambwn, "having received", is adverbial, taken either as causal, "because ...", or temporal, "when ..."

th/ dexia/ adj. dat. "to the right hand" - by/to the right [of god]. The dative may be instrumental, "by God's authority", or locative, "to the seat of God's authority." Instrumental is best; "uplifted then, by God's right hand", Moffatt. The genitive tou qeou, "of God", is adjectival, identifying the possession of a derivative characteristic.

lambwn (lambanw) aor. part. "he has received" - [and] having received. The participle as for "having been lifted up", and linked to it by te. Received as a gift of exaltation; received in the sense of received the authority to give the Holy Spirit, as promised in Joel.

para + gen. "from [the Father]" - from beside [the father]. Here expressing source, as NIV.

tou pneumatoV (a atoV) gen. "of the [holy] spirit" - [the promise] of the [holy] spirit. A genitive of definition; "the promise which consists of / which is the Holy Spirit."

execeen (eckew) aor. "he has poured out" - [this] he poured out [which you see and hear]. Referring to Joel 3:1, identified in v17. Jesus has received the authority to pour out the Spirit, and has now done so.


To support his case, Peter quotes from Psalm 110:1; see "Interpretation" above. This Psalm is widely used in Christian apologetic, both in the gospels, Paul's epistles, and Hebrews.

gar "for" - for. More reason than cause, introducing textual support for Peter's claim that Jesus is now exalted to God's right hand.

ou "[David did] not" - not [david]. Davies & Allison make the point that the position of this negation implies the meaning "It was not David who ascended", rather than "David did not ascend."

eiV + acc. to [heaven]" - [ascended] into [the heavens]. Expressing the direction of the action and/or arrival at. The clause makes the point that Jesus fulfils the promise of the Psalm in that it was not David who ascended.

tw/ kuriw/ (oV) dat. "[The Lord said] to [my] Lord" - [but/and he says, the lord said] to the lord [of me]. Dative of indirect object.

ek "at [my right hand]" - [sit down] out of, from [the right of me]. As in v25, the preposition here carries a locative sense, "at/on". Sitting at the right hand of God implies sitting in a position of authority. Only Ezekiel's Son of Man has such authority.


eJwV an + subj. "until" - until [i may make the enemies of you]. Introducing a temporal clause, indefinite future time. Implying that Jesus' authority ends when his enemies are subdued, but it may be saying that he uses his divine authority "during the time that it is necessary" to subdue the enemy, cf., 1Cor.15:24 for a text that supports "until".

uJpopodion (on) acc. "a footstool" - a footstool. Accusative complement of the direct object "enemies", standing in a double accusative construction and stating a fact about the object, lit., "I make enemies a footstool of you."

twn podwn (ouV odoV) gen. "for [your] feet" - of the feet [of you]. The genitive may be treated adjectivally, possibly possessive, or simply attributive, limiting "stool", "footstool", or adverbially, reference / respect, "a footstool with respect to feet" = "for feet."


v] Conclusion, v36: Peter finally gets to the punch line: Jesus is both Christ and Lord. He was "declared to be the Son of God with power .... by the resurrection from the dead", Rom.1:4.

As already noted in "Interpretation" above, the term "Lord" was often used in the sense of "Sir" - a title of respect. Yet, for an Old Testament Jew it was the "name above every name", the name of God himself - The Lord, Adonai. Yet, it is unlikely that Peter (even Luke) is drawing a direct equivalent (the speech most likely reflects an early / undeveloped Christology). So, Jesus is Lord, in the sense of the anointed one (messiah / Son of Man) who is enthroned at the right hand of the Ancient of Days with all authority and power, ie., with the status of divinity. Paul the apostle will go on to develop Christ's divinity, his Lordship, providing the foundation-blocks for the doctrine of the trinity, cf., Phil.2:9 where a reverential title for Jehovah is applied to Jesus - this sense is adopted in the sample sermon.

The reality of Jesus' status, authority and power, announces the dawning of the kingdom. The kingdom is now. It is the day when "all peoples on earth will be blessed", it is the day of "salvation". Peter's call to repent and believe the gospel follows in v37-41. So, the apostolic testimony and scriptural prophecy serving to explain the events surrounding Jesus' death and the outpouring of ecstatic prophecy which had just occurred, combine to confirm the status and significance of Jesus - he is the long-awaited messiah, and he is Lord.

oun "therefore" - therefore. Inferential, drawing a logical conclusion, namely, the implications of the speech. "So therefore / consequently", "God's resurrection and exaltation of Jesus accredits him as mankind's Lord and Israel's messiah", Longenecker.

ginwsketw (ginwskw) pres. imp. "let [all Israel be]" - let know. "Know" in the sense of a man "knowing" his wife, ie., something stronger than just intellectual assent; "the whole house of Israel must realise for sure", Barclay.

asfalwV adv. "assured" - assuredly, beyond a doubt [all house of israel]. Adverb of manner; emphasising the truth of Peter's conclusion; what Israel may know for certain.

oJti "-" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception, expressing what Israel should be assured of (to know); "so then the whole house of Israel must realise for sure that .....", Barclay.

epoihsen (poiew) aor. "[God] made" - [god] made, caused to become [him]. "Appointed", Barrett, but possibly better "acknowledged". Given the context, the word may well mean "cause to become", in the sense of "appoint". The only problem is that Jesus was appointed as Messiah at his baptism. Barrett argues otherwise, but the messianic secret, evidenced during Jesus' life, does not mean that his appointment as messiah awaited his resurrection. We are on safer ground with Bruce who argues for "confirmed".

touton pro. "this [Jesus]" - this [jesus]. The use of the pronoun here is intensive. The phrase, "this Jesus", stands in apposition to auton, "him".

uJmeiV pro. "you" - [whom] you [crucified]. Emphatic by position and use.

kai ... kai "both [Lord] and [Christ]" - and = both [lord] and [christ]. Forming a correlative construction. The accusatives, "Lord" and "Messiah, Christ", serve as the complement of the direct object "Jesus", so forming a treble accusative construction.


Acts Introduction


Exegetical Commentaries


[Pumpkin Cottage]