1. The early church in Jerusalem, 1:1-5:42

ix] Peter preaches in the temple


In response to the healing of the lame man, an astonished crowd gathers in Solomon's Portico, inside the temple. Confronted by the crowd, Peter proclaims the gospel. Israel may have murdered their messiah, but God raised him up, so the new age foretold by the prophets, the age of "refreshing" and "universal restoration", is at hand. So, now is the time for Israel "to listen" and turn from her "wicked ways."


The time is fulfilled, the kingdom of God is at hand, repent and believe.


i] Context: See 1:1-11.


ii] Background: The gospel message

The euaggelion, "gospel / important message", news from God, is proclaimed by the Baptist, Jesus and his disciples, through to today. It is a simple message, cf., Mk.1:15:

The time is fulfilled,

the kingdom of God is at hand;

repent and believe the message.

This message follows a pattern established in the history of God's people from the creation, to Noah, Abraham, Moses and the Exodus, through the time of the prophets and finally, in the life of Jesus Christ.

[Kingdom of God diagram]

[Kingdom of God diagram]

So, the story of the Bible is the story of humanity covenanted to God - "I am your God .... you are my people". It is the story of the creation of a kingdom, a community bound in fellowship under the Creator God. Although this community, from time-to-time, realises the kingdom in some form or other, it repeatedly fractures due to sin. Yet, God's covenant with his people cannot fracture. Ultimately, God, in and through the person of Jesus, realises the kingdom in perfection.
[Kingdom of God diagram]

As illustrated above, the gospel is the news from God that Jesus has undertaken the journey to the promise land on our behalf (his exodon, "exodus", "which he was about to fulfil in Jerusalem", Lk.9:31) - the time is fulfilled. With the victory won and risen from the dead, Jesus now reigns in glory - the kingdom of God is at hand.


As the mouse-over image above illustrates, the kingdom is both now and not yet, realised and inaugurated. So, we experience in-part the realisation of the kingdom and its blessings, but still await its fullness at the coming of Christ. Therefore, the gospel message deals with what it means to be in the kingdom now, and what it means in the not yet, that day when we experience the fullness of God's promised kingdom. Of course, it's not all good news, blessing. The gospel also relates the bad news, cursing, particularly what it means for those outside the kingdom in the last day.

As is typical of the sermons in Acts, they present the three key elements of the gospel:

iThe first element, "the time is fulfilled", is usually present when the audience is made up of Jews. The fulfilment of prophecy in and through the person of Jesus, God's anointed messiah, climaxes in his resurrection from the dead. With a Gentile audience, the issue of fulfilment is limited to the person of Jesus and his resurrection, rather than the fulfilment of scripture, cf., 17:31.

iGiven God's vindication of his anointed one, "the kingdom of God is at hand", is upon us; all the promised blessings of the covenant are now available to God's people. As already noted, a gospel sermon can be good news, blessing, now / not yet, but also bad news, cursing / judgment, usually not yet.

i"Repent and believe." The third element, the response, focuses on repentance.

These three elements are sometimes arranged differently in the gospel sermons in Acts, and are often introduced by a word addressing the immediate situation. A classic example of introductory material used to preface the gospel is evident in Paul's Areopagus address to Gentiles, cf., Acts.17.


So, in summary, the gospel's structure and content is as follows:

i] Introduction;

ii] The time is fulfilled;

iii] The kingdom of God is at hand;

Blessing: now / not yet;

Cursing: now / not yet;

iv] Repent and believe the gospel.

This structure is evident in the two gospels sermons recorded in Acts so far:

a) Acts 2:14-42

i] Introduction - explanation of tongues

ii] The time is fulfilled: 2:14:32

iii] The kingdom of God at hand

Blessing: the gift of the Holy Spirit: 2:33


iv] Repent: 2:38-40


b) Acts 3:11-26

i] Introduction - explanation of the healing

ii] The time is fulfilled: 3:17-18

iii] The Kingdom of God at hand


Now: the forgiveness of sins, times of refreshing, 3:19

Not yet: return of Christ, restoration of all things. 3:21



Not yet: return of Christ, restoration of all things.

iv] Repent: 3:19a.


iii] Structure: The healing of the lame man:

The miracle, v1-10;

Peter's gospel sermon, v11-26;

Introduction: Why the lame man walks, v11-16;

The Kerygma / Gospel, v17-26;

The time is fulfilled, v17-18

Jesus is the long-promised Messiah;

Repent, 19a

The kingdom of God is upon us, 19b-21:

"forgiveness of sins";

"times of rest";

"universal restoration"

Biblical confirmation, v22-25;

All the prophets spoke of these days, v22-23;

The promised blessings of the covenant belong to Israel, v24-25.


iv] Interpretation:

Luke's record of Peter's address to the gathered crowd in Solomon's Portico serves as the second gospel sermon recorded in Acts. In this sermon, Peter first explains the miracle that has just played out at the temple gate. He then goes on to explain that Jesus, the messiah, an innocent man, only recently murdered by his own people, is alive, raised to life by God, and it is through faith in him that this lame man now walks.

Going on in v17-26, Peter explains that given Christ's messianic credentials in fulfilment of Israel's prophetic expectations, the outpouring of God's long-promised covenant blessings are at hand. For Israel to share in the blessings of the new age they must repent.


Dunn is of the view that Luke has drawn on a very old tradition to frame this sermon by Peter. It is certainly possible that a record of the sermons and acts of Peter existed in the early church and Luke may well be drawing on this source. Bock, quoting Hengel, argues that the early church's Christology probably developed in the first five years of the church. Dunn particularly notes that the Christology in the sermon "has a distinctly primitive ring" to it:

ipaida, "Servant";

iton aJgion kai dikaion, "Holy and Righteous one";

i ton archgon, "the author, leader, originator"

Dunn also notes other ancient motifs:

ithe promise of universal restoration (cf., Testament of Moses, 1:18);

ithe idea that Jesus is the fulfilment of the promise of a prophet like Moses;

ithe idea that Jesus, as God's servant, fulfils the covenant promise to Abraham of a blessing to all nations.

As for the rhetorical form of the sermon, Witherington classifies the opening section as judicial, a defence / apologetic, with v19-26 being deliberative, a form of rhetoric where the speaker seeks to draw a response from his audience.


v] Homiletics: The Gospel

It seems likely that Luke provides a model for the Christian church in his Acts of the Apostles - this is how they spread the gospel; go and do likewise! The gospel sermons in Acts also serve as models, as does the one before us:

i] Explanatory introduction;

ii] Time is fulfilled - the murdered one is risen from the dead;

iii] Kingdom of God is upon us - blessings / cursings;

iv] Repent and believe.


Good News Beads - key ring or bangle memory tool: [coloured beads]

i] G. God's beautiful world;

    P. Polluted beyond measure;

ii] R. Renewed by Jesus on the cross;

    C. Came alive. You can't keep a Good Man down!

iii] B. Because He lives, we can live eternally in God's new world;

iv] Y. You only have to ask.

Text - 3:11

Peter's gospel sermon, v11-26: i] Introduction: Peter's explanation for the healing of the lame man, v11-16. This part of the sermon is introductory, explaining why the lame man now walks, and so serves to lead into the gospel proper.

kratountoV (kratew) gen. pres. part. "while [the man] held on to" - [but/and he] grasping, holding on to [peter and john]. The genitive participle and its genitive subject autou, "he", forms a genitive absolute construction, probably temporal, as NIV.

ekqamboi adj. "were astonished" - [all the people] amazed, greatly astonished. The adjective is attributive, limiting "all the people", "who were astonished." Luke has certainly not placed it in the attributive position. The ESV treats it as if standing in apposition, "all the people, utterly astounded, ran ....." Its position at the end of the sentence is emphatic.

th/ kaloumenh/ (kalew) pres. mid. part. "called" - [ran together toward them upon = at the portico] the one being called. The dative participle may be treated as adjectival, attributive, limiting "the portico", "which is called ....", or as a substantive standing in apposition to "the portico", "the one called"; "what was called Solomon's portico", Moffatt. "At the vestibule called Solomon's", Berkeley.

SolomwntoV (wn ontoV) gen. "Solomon's" - the portico of solomon. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, limiting an assumed "the portico" which would serve as the dative complement of th/ kaloumenh/, "the one being called."


First of all, Peter dispels any notion that the disciples are themselves responsible for this healing; they are not divine men.

de "-" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative.

idwn (oJraw) aor. part. "when [Peter] saw this" - [peter] having seen [their reaction]. The participle is adverbial, best treated as temporal, as NIV.

proV + acc. "to [them]" - [answered] toward [the people]. This preposition is commonly used by Luke in place of a dative of direct object.

tiv "why" - [men, israelites,] what = why [are you wondering upon = at this]. Interrogative pronoun, introducing a rhetorical question and used with the adverbial sense "why?", but with the force of "You should not", Kellum - "They should neither marvel, nor assume." Culy suggests that the preposition epi, "upon", is causal here, "because of this."

hJmin dat. pro. "[stare at] us" - [why are you looking steadfastly at, gazing at] us. Dative of direct object after the a prefix verb "to stare at."

wJV "as if" - as. This comparative functions adverbially here, modal, expressing manner, "as if ...", or concessive, "as though ...."

dunamei (iV ewV) dat. "by [our own] power" - by [our own] power [or goodness]. The dative is instrumental, expressing means.

pepoihkosin (poiew) dat. perf. part. "we had made" - having made. Although anarthrous, it seems likely that the participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting the dative phrase "our own power or godliness", "which had enabled this man to walk", Cassirer. Culy suggests that it serves as a substantive, while Kellum suggests that it functions as an independent verb, presumably a periphrastic construction where the verb to-be is assumed. It is of course possible that it is functioning adverbially with wJV, "as though having made / we made him walk by our own power or piety." The dative case would come from hJmin, "us", the dative referent for the clause.

tou peripatein (peripatew) pres. inf. "walk" - [him] to walk. This construction, the genitive article with an infinitive, is possibly epexegetic, specifying the enabling, but it is more likely adverbial here, expressing purpose, "in order that ...", or result, "with the result that ..." The pronoun auton, "him", serves as the accusative subject of the infinitive.


The people of Israel may have taken Jesus, an innocent man, and handed him over to be executed, but God glorified him - raised and seated him at his right hand. Peter identifies Jesus as paida, "child / servant [of God]." The title "Servant of the Lord", recalls both Israel as God's servant, as well as the great ones, Moses, David, ......., and in particular, the Servant in Isaiah's servant song, cf. Isa.52:13.

twn paterwn (or roV) gen. "the God of our fathers" - [the god of abraham, and the god of isaac, and the god of jacob, the god] of the fathers [of us]. As with "Abraham", "Isaac", and "Jacob", the genitive is adjectival, descriptive, idiomatic / subordination, "the God who ruled over our fathers."

Ihsoun (ouV ou) "Jesus" - [glorified the servant of him,] jesus. Standing in apposition to paida, "servant / child."

men ....... de "-" - [whom you] on the one hand [delivered over and denied]. Usually forming an adversative comparative construction, here between this verse and v14, "on the one hand you handed over ............., but on the other hand you disowned the Holy and Righteous One ......" The contrasting statements are somewhat subtle. The point is that the people of Israel disowned someone they thought was a criminal, but as it turned out, they disowned the messiah.

kata + acc. "before [Pilate]" - according to [the face of pilate]. The phrase "according to the face" is idiomatic, meaning "a position in front of an object, with the implication of direct sight", "face to face", Culy. "Whom you delivered up and repudiated before Pilate", Moffatt.

krinantoV (krinw) gen. aor. part. "though he had decided" - [that one] having decided. The genitive participle and its genitive subject form a genitive absolute construction, concessive, as NIV, or temporal, "when he had decided", ESV.

apoluein (apoluw) pres. inf. "to let him go" - to release. The infinitive serves as the direct object of the participle "having decided" / dependent statement of perception / indirect speech, expressing what he had decided; "when his judgment was that he should be released", Cassirer.


The people of Israel, complicit in the decisions of their leadership, thought they delivered up a blasphemer for execution, but they actually delivered up the messiah. Luke uses two more messianic titles for Jesus. "The Holy One" is a title normally reserved for God, cf., Lev.11:44-45. The title "the Righteous One" probably reflects Pauline theology where a believer stands right before God through faith in the faithfulness of the one and only righteous man. Being in Christ by faith, a believer is accounted as righteous before God - "the righteous will live by faith", Hab.2:4 / Rom.1:17.

de "-" - but on the other hand [you denied the holy and righteous one]. Serving to the complete the adversative comparative construction commenced in v13. Note the emphatic use of the personal pronoun uJmeiV, "you".

carisqhnai (carizomai) aor. pas. inf. "that [a murderer] be released" - [you requested a man, a murderer] to be given. The infinitive introduces an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech, expressing what they requested. Note that fonea, "murderer", stands in apposition to andra, "man".

uJmin dat. pro. "to you" - to you. Dative of indirect object.


Israel conspired to execute the life-giver whom God had raised up. This fourth title for Jesus is somewhat unclear. The word archgon can mean "originator, author", even "hero, ruler, prince", but probably here, in contrast to the one who takes life, a murderer, v14, a causal sense is intended, "a giver" of life, or "one who leads to" life - cf., use in 5:31, "giver of salvation"??? Note again how Luke draws out the central function of discipleship - the disciples are witness to the resurrection.

de "-" - but/and. Probably contrastive here, rather than transitional. In fact, it presents as a second part to the adversative comparative construction, "but also on the other hand ....."

thV zwhV (h) "[the author] of life" - [the giver] of life. If we assume the verbal sense of the noun archgon, then the genitive is adjectival, verbal, objective.

ek + gen. "from [the dead]" - [whom god raised] from [the dead]. Expressing source / origin.

ou| gen. pro. "of this" - of which [we are witnesses]. The genitive is adverbial here, reference / respect; "with respect to which we are witnesses." "You no sooner killed the author of life than God raised him from the dead - and we're the witnesses", Peterson.


This is a very difficult verse, both to translate and interpret. Barrett views the Greek as clumsy - another example of the unedited Greek often found in Acts. Commentators tend to agree that Luke has clumsily sought to restate the opening phrase to clarify its intent, ie., remove any idea that the name of Jesus can magically be applied to achieve a miracle.

It is generally agreed that "the name" simply represents the person, and when used of Jesus, it represents the authority of his person. When it comes to "faith", most commentators see it as faith in Jesus, either exercised by the apostles, or the lame man; "faith in Jesus' name ..... has put this man on his feet", Peterson.

Yet, it seems likely that it is this understanding of "faith" that causes our problems. The pistiV, "faith, faithfulness", is probably Jesus' faith / faithfulness, such that tou onamatoV, "of the name", is a subjective / possessive genitive rather than objective, ie., "the faith / faithfulness exercised by / belonging to the person of Jesus", rather than "faith applied to the name / person of Jesus." So lit.: "This miracle is because of / on the basis of the faith / faithfulness of / belonging to the name (the person and authority) of him (Jesus)."

Luke goes on by drawing out the sense of "name" kai, "and", "faith": First, the keyword word "the name", lit., "The name of him (the person and authority of Jesus) made strong (healed) this one whom you see and know." Then, with Pauline flare, Luke draws out the sense of the second keyword, pistiV, "faith", lit., "and the faith / faithfulness which is through / by means of him (autou, "of him" = Jesus) gave to him this wholeness." Obviously "him" is not the lame man because he only asked for money, and if the subject was the apostles, it would be "them". So, Peter is making the point that the healing rests on "the name" (the person of Jesus) and his "faith / faithfulness" (Jesus' faithful obedience to God the Father).

See Galatians 2:16, as well as the linked notes, for the classification of a subjective / possessive genitive, rather than objective genitive, in the phrase dia thV pistewV autou, "the faith / faithfulness of him (Jesus)", usually translated as an objective genitive, "faith in him (Jesus)."

epi + dat. "by [faith]" - [and] upon [faith, faithfulness]. Causal use of the preposition; "because of, on the basis of."

tou onamatoV (a atoV) gen. "in the name" - of the name [of him]. The genitive is adjectival, usually treated as verbal, objective, but better subjective, or possessive. See above.

o}n acc. pro. "[this one] whom" - [the name of him made strong this one] whom [you see and know]. Accusative object of the verbs "to see" and "to know."

hJ + gen. "that comes [through]" - [and the faith] the one [through him]. The article serves as an adjectivizer, turning the instrumental preposition dia, "through, by means of", into an attributive modifier of "faith"; "the faith / faithfulness which is through him (Jesus)."

autw/ dat. pro. "him" - [gave] to him [this wholeness]. Dative of indirect object; "Has given him perfect health", Barclay.

uJmwn gen. pro. "you" - [in the presence of all] of you. The genitive is adjectival, partitive / wholative; "In the sight of you all", Cassirer.


ii] The Kerygma / Gospel, v17-26: Peter gets into the gospel proper by establishing that Jesus has fulfilled the scriptures and thus, as God's anointed messiah, has ushered in the new age of God's kingdom. Therefore, it is required of Israel to repent if she is to share in God's promised blessings.

a) The time is fulfilled - Jesus is the long-promised Messiah, v17-18. Peter continues to focus on the person of Jesus. He has already made the point that Jesus, as God's servant, is the Holy and Righteous one, the author of life, and now he declares that Jesus is the messiah, the suffering servant of the Lord.

kai nun "now" - and now. Transitional, indicating a move to the central argument of the speech.

oJti "[I know] that" - [and now, brothers, i know] that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what Peter knows.

kata + acc. "-" - [you acted] according to [ignorance]. Here expressing a standard, or adverbial, modal, expressing manner, "you behaved ignorantly."

w{sper "as did" - as, like [and = also the rulers (religious authorities) of you]. This comparative coordinates a similar category; "you behaved in ignorance, just as your leaders did", Berkeley.


As the Suffering Servant, Jesus has fulfilled Israel's prophetic expectations.

de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument where Peter explains that the ignorant actions of the people of Israel, in delivering up Jesus for execution, are in fulfilment of the predictions of prophets; "In point of fact", Cassirer.

ou{twV adv. "this is how" - thus [god has fulfilled]. Adverb of manner, "thus, in this way", emphatic by position; "in the way you and your leaders set out to kill an innocent man, God has fulfilled ........"

a} rel. pro. "what" - the things which [he announced beforehand]. Introducing a headless relative clause, serving as the direct object of the verb "to fulfil." "The things" are the predictions of the prophets.

dia + gen. "through" - through [the mouth of all the prophets]. Instrumental, expressing means; "what he had foretold by the mouth of all the prophets", Cassirer. An idiomatic expression, so "through the preaching of all the prophets", Peterson.

paqein (pascw) aor. inf. "saying that [his Messiah] would suffer" - that [the christ of him] to suffer. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what was announced beforehand by God through the prophets, "that his Christ would suffer", ESV, so Kellum. Culy opts for an epexegetic classification. "The Christ of him" serves as the accusative subject of the infinitive.


b) Repent, v19a: The context seems to imply that Peter is calling for corporate repentance on the part of Israel, but it is more likely that individual repentance is in mind, as in 2:38. The sense of the verb metanoaw, "to repent", is specified by the verb epistrefw, "to turn back." Repentance involves a recognition of being against God, of being opposed to his will, prompting a turning to Him for mercy and forgiveness. Repentance = turning back to God.

oun "[repent] then" - therefore. Inferential, drawing a logical conclusion.

metanohsate kai epistreyate "repent ... and turn to God" - repent and turn back. Best viewed as a doublet, so Barrett, otherwise "repent" here ends up with a limited sense like "renounce sin."


c) The kingdom of God is at hand, v19b-21. The repentant receive the blessings of "forgiveness of sins", "times of rest", and "universal restoration." The first and second intended purpose of the call to repent and turn to God is for the present blessings of forgiveness of sins and "times of refreshing", v19. Note that the opening Gk. sentence covers v19-21.

eiV to + inf. "so that" - into the [to be removed the sins of you]. This construction, the preposition eiV + the articular infinitive, usually introduces a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that your sins may be blotted out", ie., for the forgiveness of sins.

o{pwV a] + subj. "and that" - in order that. This construction introduces a purpose clause. As Culy notes, for a purpose clause, Luke prefers iJna + subj., but here he has used a classical construction which he has likely used from his source document.

anayaxewV (eV ewV) gen. "[times] of refreshing" - [times, seasons] of rest, refreshing, repose. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "times", "the times of refreshment that come from the presence of the Lord." The sense of the word here is unclear. In the LXX it is used of respite from punishment, Ex.8:15, for the cessation of suffering, Ps.38:14, the revival of God's people, 2Macc.13:11. Kellum suggests that Luke has in mind the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, a refreshing "mediated through the Holy Spirit." "Showers of blessing to refresh you", Peterson.

apo + gen. "from [the Lord]" - from [presence of the lord]. Expressing source / origin.


The third intended purpose of the call to repent and turn to God is for the future return of the Messiah, v20, and the restoration of all things, v21. This not yet is both good news, and bad news, blessing and cursing. "God, through Christ, will restore his fallen world to the purity and integrity of its initial creation", Barrett. For those included in the restoration, it's good news, for those outside, it's bad news. The promise has in mind "the ultimate renewal of the whole created order", Peterson D. Given the now /not yet eschatology of the scriptures, Jesus is already doing just that - all knees are bowing before him - but at the same time, the restoration of all things by Jesus still lies in the future. A process of restoration is probably not in mind, rather, it is, and will be.

kai "and that" - and [he may send]. This conjunction serves to coordinate the subjunctive verb "may send" with w{pwV a]n elqwsin, "in order that may come."

ton prokeceirismenon (proceirizw) perf. mid. part. "who has been appointed" - the one having been appointed beforehand, chosen beforehand. The NIV has taken the participle as adjectival, attributive, limiting ton ... criston, "the Messiah", but it may also be viewed as a substantive, direct object of the verb "to send", with "Christ Jesus" standing in apposition; "that he may send forth to you him whom he has appointed beforehand, Jesus Christ", Cassirer.

uJmin dat. pro. "for you" - to you [christ jesus]. Dative of interest, advantage.


Culy suggests that a men ... de construction controls v21-24, eg., "on the one hand, God's holy prophets said heaven must hold him ....., v21, eg., Moses, re., the "Returning one", v22-23, "but on the other hand, the same thing is true of all the other prophets ......", v24. To further confuse matters, we have what looks like another men .... de construction in v22-23. Presumably, Luke intends a linkage of clauses here, but how? Given that v19-21 is a single sentence in the Greek, it seems likely that the use of men in v21 is nothing more than emphatic, underlining the statement "until the time of restoration."

dexasqai (decomai) aor. inf. "receive" - [whom] to receive [is necessary]. The infinitive serves as the subject of the impersonal verb "it is necessary." The relative pronoun o}n, "whom", serves as the accusative subject of the infinitive. See plhrwqhnai, 1:16, for a complementary classification.

men "-" - on the one hand. Adversative / coordinative comparative construction; see above.

apokatastasewV (iV ewV) gen. "[the time comes] for god to restore" - [until the time] of the restoration, renewal. The genitive is adjectival, descriptive, idiomatic / temporal, limiting "time", "the time when God restores / renews all things."

pantwn gen. adj. "everything" - of all things. The adjective serves as a substantive, the genitive being adjectival, verbal, objective.

w|n gen. pro. "as" - of which [god spoke]. The genitive is probably adverbial, reference / respect, "about which God spoke through the prophets."

ap (apo) gen. "[long ago]" - from [the age of him]. Temporal use of the preposition. Idiomatic temporal phrase, as NIV.

dia + gen. "through" - through [mouth]. Instrumental, expressing means; "as God announced by means of his holy prophets of long ago", TEV.

profhtwn (hs ou) gen. "prophets" - [of the = his holy] prophets. Genitive, standing in apposition to "holy".


iii] Biblical confirmation, v22-23. The mention of the prophets in v21 prompts Peter to confirm the Kerygma from the scriptures. He begins with a text from Deuteronomy 18:15-19. As promised long ago by the prophets, Jesus must be held in heaven until the time for the restoration of all things, namely, the consummation of the kingdom. Moses mentions this Returning One, with the warning that those who fail to heed his words will be "cut off" when he returns. All the prophets have spoken about taV hJmeraV taoutaV, "these days" ("the times of restoration of all things", v21, rather than "the present days").

The text concerns the coming of the prophet like unto Moses. The tradition of a messianic Moses-like figure was quite strong at the time, even among the Samaritans, who identified him as the Taheb, "the Returning One", "the Restorer".

men .... de "-" - indeed / on the one hand ..... Introducing an adversative comparative construction covering v22-24; "On the one hand, Moses said a prophet will rise up for you and you will listen ........... v24, but on the other hand / in point of fact, all the prophets from Samuel on have proclaimed these days." "And indeed, these are the words Moses has spoken, ............ (v24) Furthermore, all the prophets who have ever spoken, from Samuel onwards, have forecast these days", Cassirer.

oJti "-" - [moses said] that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of direct speech expressing what Moses said.

uJmin dat. pro. "for you" - [the lord god of you will raise up a prophet] to = for you. Dative of interest, advantage; "for you."

wJV "like [me]" - as [me]. Comparative; "just as he sent me", TEV.

ek + gen. "from among" - from [the brothers of you]. Expressing source / origin; "God will raise up a fellow Jew like me." Possibly a partitive use of the preposition; "Who will be of your own people", TEV.

autou gen. "-" - [you will hear, listen to] him. Genitive of direct object after to verb "to hear of." The NIV treats the future tense here as imperative.

kata + acc. "everything" - according to [everything]. Here with a distributive sense, as NIV.

o{sa a]n + subj. "-" - whatever [he may say toward you]. Introducing an indefinite relative construction expressing unidentified extent. The construction functions as an attributive modifier, limiting the prepositional phrase "everything"; "everything that he says to you", Barclay.


Included in the quote from Deuteronomy are two phrases from Leviticus 23:29, "every soul / person", and "will be completely cut off from the people." This replaces "I will take vengeance", so emphasising exclusion from the promised kingdom of God and its associated blessings.

de "-" - but. Introducing the second part of the adversative comparative construction commenced in v22.

h{tiV e]an "[anyone] who" - [it will be that every soul] certain if = whoever. This indefinite relative construction introduces an attributive modifier limiting "every soul"; "every soul who refuses to listen to the prophet", Barclay.

tou profhtou (hV ou) gen. "[listen to] him" - [does not hear, obey, take heed of that] prophet. Genitive of direct object after the verb "to hear."

ek + gen. "[will be completely] cut off" - [will be completely destroyed] from [the people]. Expressing separation; "No one who disobeys that prophet will be one of God's people any longer", CEV.


The restoration of all things by the Coming One like Moses, the Restorer, was announced "through his holy prophets", starting with the prophet Samuel. Those who fail to heed the announcement will be "cut off." It is unclear why Samuel, the prophet operative at the time of king David, is singled out as the beginning of a long line of prophets. Dunn suggests that he is the singled out because he is the first great prophet after Moses, and is "the first of Israel's great sequence of prophets."

de "indeed" - but/and [and = also the prophets]. Probably serving to introduce the second part of the adversative comparative construction commenced in v21; "but the same thing is also true for the other prophets", Marshall.

apo + gen. "beginning with" - from [samuel and]. A temporal use, "from the days of Samuel onward", is disputed by Culy; he argues that apo is not used temporally, so source / origin is likely intended, as NIV.

twn gen. "-" - the [consecutively]. The article serves as a nominalizer, turning the adverb "consecutively, in order" into a substantive; "and from his successors;" "from Samuel and those who came after him", ESV.

o{soi pro. "who have spoken" - as many as [spoke]. The correlative adjective introduces an attributive modifier limiting the prophets, "who have spoken."

kai "-" - and = also [announced this day]. Here adverbial, adjunctive; "also proclaimed these days", ESV.


The promised blessings of the covenant / agreement made with Abraham include the promise of a people / descendants, a land, and a blessing that extends to all peoples. This is Israel's inheritance.

uJmeiV pro. "you [are]" - you [you are]. Emphatic by position and use.

thV diaqhkhV (h) gen. "of the covenant" - [the sons of the prophets and] of the covenant [god made toward the fathers of you]. Both Culy and Kellum argue that the two genitives "of the prophets" and "of the covenant" do not equally modify the noun "sons", the first being possessive, the second descriptive. None-the-less, they could both be classified as adjectival, relational, given that "sons of" is an idiomatic expression for close association. "Sons of the prophets" virtually means "Israelites", as does "sons of the covenant" - "you are Israelites and so are inheritors of the blessings God promised your father Abraham"; "The promise of God for his prophets is for you, and you share in the covenant which God made with your ancestors", TEV.

legwn (legw) pres. part. "he said" - saying. The participle is probably adverbial, temporal; "when he said to Abraham", Moffatt.

proV + acc. "to [Abraham]" - toward [abraham]. This preposition is often used by Luke in place of a dative of indirect object, as NIV.

en + dat. "through" - [and] in [the seed of you]. Instrumental use of the preposition; "through, by means of." "Through your children shall all the families of the earth be blessed", Phillips. The coordinate kai, "and", comes from the quoted text.

thV ghV (h) gen. "[all peoples] on earth" - [all the families] of the earth [will be blessed]. The genitive is adjectival, descriptive, idiomatic / local, "all the families located in the earth."


Peter still has in mind the Moses-like prophet that God raised up, v22, so probably not a reference to the resurrection and the sending of the Spirit to bless God's people. God sent his Moses-like prophet, the Returning One, to realise the promised covenant blessings, by prompting the people of Israel to repent / turn back to God. The "wickedness" is the way of sin, of being in a state opposed to God and so facing his condemnation. Note the Pauline strategy "first to you"; the gospel is to Jew first and then Gentiles.

anasthsaV (anisthmi) aor. part. "when [God] raised up" - having raised up [the child / servant of him]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "to send", but it may also be classified as adverbial, temporal, as NIV.

uJmin dat. pro. " to you" - [he sent him first] to you. Dative of interest, advantage. The position of this pronoun at the beginning of the Gk. sentence is emphatic.

eulogounta (eulogew) pres. part. "to bless [you]" - blessing [you]. The participle is adverbial, final, expressing purpose: "in order to bless you."

en "by [turning each of you]" - in [the turning away each one of you]. Instrumental, expressing means, as NIV. A partitive genitive is assumed by many translations, as NIV.

apo + gen. "from" - from. Expressing separation; "away from."

uJmwn gen. pro. "your" - [the wickedness] of you. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, identifying the possession of a derivative characteristic, or verbal, "the wickedness enacted by you."


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