The Argument Proper

The sin and doom of the godless


Paul's attack on antinomianism / libertarianism is based on the substantial truth that a person united to Christ by grace through faith is naturally inclined to godly behaviour - the fruit of faith is love. James and John press the issue further by arguing that were there is no love there is no faith. Jude tackles antinomianism from another angle - crime begets punishment.


i] Context: See v1-2.


ii] Background - A general introduction: See v1-2.


iii] Structure: The sin and doom of the godless:

Lessons of crime and punishment from the Old Testament, v5-7;

The exodus rebels, rebel angels, Sodom and Gomorrah.

The crime of the "ungodly", v8-10;

they defame authority.

Further examples of crime and punishment from the Old Testament, v11-13;

Cain, Balaam and Korah.

Their future punishment is assured, v14-16;

Enoch's prophecy.


iv] Interpretation:

Under God's rule, crime begets punishment. So, to remind his readers of this fact, Jude provides three examples from the past: the fate of the rebels during the time of the Exodus; the popular story about the fall of the angels; and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, v5-7. In v8-10, Jude condemns the heretics for their irrational dream-like ideas, and for claiming authority that even Michael the archangel would dare not claim. Woe to them, v11.

In v12-13, Jude presents the first of three pointed critiques of the heretics (v12-13, 16, 19). The heretics share in fellowship with their brothers and sisters, but they don't share, they lack generosity, they are like shepherds who only feed themselves - clouds without water, froth and bubble, shooting stars that are bright but for a moment. As a consequence, the heretics face judgment, v14-15. Jude describes their end in the terms of a popular book of the time, the Book of Enoch. In the prophecy of Enoch, the Lord will return with 10,000 angels to execute judgment on the wicked. Finally, in his second critique, v16, Jude exposes their persistent complaining, their unfettered carnal desires, and their boot-licking for personal gain (they are moochers, bludgers).


The reference to the argument between Michael and the Devil over the burial of Moses , v9. Jude is likely referring to a work known as the Assumption of Moses. Only a fragment of this Jewish apocalyptic work has survived, with the reference to the argument in question lost. The issue was over the authority of the Devil in matters pertaining to the material order. As the story goes, Michael was divinely appointed to burry Moses, but the Devil questioned his right to do so, and threatened to accuse Moses before God over his murder of the Egyptian, Ex.2:12. The argument playing out as Jude records.

The Assumption of Moses was given an authoritative status in the first century, but it is generally not accepted scripture. What we have from Deuteronomy 34:6 is the account that "he", presumably the Lord, buried Moses opposite Beth-peor in Moab "and no man knows the place of his burial to this day." On the basis of this reference, some hold to the view that Moses was later translated, which accounts for his presence with Elijah at the transfiguration of Jesus. All this is very interesting, but speculative (and what about Methuselah who lived 969 years and then "was not" - was not what?).


Jude's used of apocryphal texts. Jude, like many Jewish believers of the time, regarded 1 Enoch as authoritative. As the New Testament canon took shape, many of the later Jewish writings were deemed useful for reading in church, but not for the formation of doctrine. This selection process also played out with New Testament writings. Works such as the Shepherd of Hermas and the Apocalypse of Peter were ultimately excluded from the authoritative canon of scripture. For the Christian church, the later Jewish writing were formed into the Apocrypha, although the list of accepted works varied throughout Christendom. The Greek text of the Bible which ultimately ended up in Ethiopia lacked 1 to 4 Maccabees, Ezra and Nehemiah, but contained 1 Enoch and Jubilees.

It is clear that for Jude, as for the author of 2 Peter, 1 Enoch is viewed as scripture. The fact that the book is later downgraded for inclusion in the Apocrypha impacts on the authoritative status of Jude. Yet, the quoted text and allusions to 1 Enoch do not impact on the overall message of Jude and so do not directly affect the authoritative status of the book. Of course indirectly, the use of 1 Enoch in Jude has prompted questions regarding the scriptural status of the epistle. So, when it come to the Cannon of scripture, Jude resides on the edge of acceptance.

Text - 1:5

The sin and doom of the godless, v5-16. i] Lessons of crime and punishment from the Old Testament, v5-7. It is very unwise for a believer to think that their salvation is safe, while at the same time living a life of defiant immorality. Consequences apply when a person ignores God's Word, when, failing to give weight to the Lord's instructions, they demonstrate their lack of commitment to him. "The Lord" is indeed a merciful God, but he can also be a wrathful God. Jude gives three examples to prove his point. First, the Exodus generation. In the end, other than Joshua and Caleb, that generation perished in the wilderness because of their unfaithfulness. Second, the fall of the angels, now bound in darkness awaiting the day of judgment. Third, the divine punishment of Sodom and Gomorrah due to their gross "sexual immorality and perversion."

de "-" - but/and. Transitional, serving to indicate a step in the argument / a paragraph indicator.

eidotaV (oida) acc. perf. part. "though [you] already know" - [i desire to remind you] having known. The NIV takes the participle as adverbial, concessive. Commonly translated as such, although as Davids notes, Culy argues that it is adjectival, attributive, limiting the accusative "you"; "I want to remind you who know all this" = "who are fully aware of ....." The variant extra uJmaV need not be read.

panta adj. "all this" - all things. Accusative object of the participlew "having known." Possibly "all that I am about to tell you", but given the presence of aJpax, "once and for all", Bauckham suggests "all the essentials of the faith in which the apostles instructed you at the time of your conversion", cf., v17.

uJpomnhsai (upomimnh/skw) aor. in. "to remind" - The infinitive is usually classified as complementary, although since "I wish" is a cognitive verb, it may be classified as introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what Jude desires.

oJti "that" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what Jude wants to remind his readers of.

oJ kurioV (oV) "the Lord" - the lord Nominative subject of the verb "to destroy." Some manuscripts have "Jesus", but usually not read. "The Lord" is probably "the Lord God" rather than "the Lord Jesus", Neyrey argues for the harder reading, "Jesus", and sees no problem with the notion that Jesus was active in the Exodus events. The NEB note that "Jesus" may mean "Joshua" in this context, is a stretch.

swsaV (swzw) aor. part. "delivered" - having delivered [once and for all the people]. The participle is adverbial, probably best treated as temporal; "the Lord, after rescuing the people from the land of Egypt", Berkeley.

ek + gen. "out of [Egypt]" - from [the land of egypt]. Expressing separation, "away from."

to deuteron adj. "but later" - the second. Here used as a temporal adverb, "the second time" = "but then", "but then later on"; "he afterward destroyed those who were unfaithful", Neyrey.

touV mh pisteusantaV (pisteuw) aor. part. "those who did not believe" - [he destroyed] the ones not having believed. The participle serves as a substantive, as NIV. Not a failure to rely on the faith / Christian doctrine, but a failure to maintain trust in their Lord. For the destruction of that generation see Numbers 14. "Yet afterwards he brought to their downfall those who would not trust him", Phillips.


1 Enoch records the story of Azazel, a fallen angel, who taught humanity war and oppression, who was bound and cast into darkness to await the fires of judgment. Jude's point is that "even angels (the most spiritual of beings) were punished when they disobeyed", Jude uses the story to illustrate his point.

te "and" - and also. Used to join elements in a series, here for the purpose of introducing a second illustration; "and consider also the example of those angels who failed in their high calling, interfering in matters outside their pay-grade."

mh thrhsantaV (threw) aor. part. "who did not keep" - [angels] not having kept [ones own rule, domain (over which lordship was accorded them, Zerwick)]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "angels", as NIV. "The angels who failed in their high duties and abandoned their proper sphere have been deprived by God of both light and liberty until the judgment in the great day", Phillips.

alla "but" - but. Strong adversative, here contrastive.

apolipontaV (apoleipw) aor. part. "abandoned" - having left [the = their own habitation]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "angels". The idea of angels becoming too involved in human affairs develops from Genesis 6:1-4 where angels marry the daughters of men and have children by them. So, Jude is referring here to those angels who have left their heavenly station and role and allowed themselves to be carried away into human affairs by lust, "just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality", ESV, v7.

uJpo + acc. "in [darkness]" - [he has kept] under [darkness]. Used here to express subordination, "under the authority of."

desmoiV (oV) dat. "bound with [everlasting] chains" - in [eternal] bonds. The dative is instrumental, "by eternal chains." Numerous references are found in 1 Enoch of fallen angels being "bound .... till the day of judgment."

eiV + acc. "for" - toward [the judgment]. Expressing end view / purpose.

hJmeraV (a) gen. "on the [great] day" - of the [great] day. The genitive "great day" is adjectival, idiomatic / temporal, as NIV, ie., the day of judgment.


A third example of crime and punishment is provided. This time Jude refers to the destruction of the twin cities of Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding towns, Zoar, Admah and Zeboim, although Zoar. They indulged in sexual immorality and paid the price. "Sodom and Gomorrah, which went to sexual rack and ruin with the surrounding cities that acted just like them, are another example. Burning and burning and never burning up, they serve still as a stock warning", Peterson.

wJV acc. "in a similar way" - as [sodom and gomorrah and the cities around them]. This comparative conjunction probably serves a recitative function here, similar to oJti, but here aligned with te in v6. So, "Consider also the example of Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities."

ton ... topon (oV) acc. "-" - in the [like, same] way, manner. The accusative is adverbial here, modal, expressing manner, and with the adjective oJmoion, "like, similar", produces the adverb "likewise / similarly"; "just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire", ESV.

toutoiV dat. masc. pro. "-" - to these ones (angels). The pronoun serves as a substantive, dative of reference / respect, "which, in the same manner as they, indulged in sexual promiscuity", NAB. Not "these cities", but "these angels", given that it is masculine, as is "angels".

ekporneusasai (ekporneuw) aor. part. "gave themselves up to sexual immorality" - having indulged in fornication, sexual immorality. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Sodom and Gomorrah and ....", "which indulged in sexual immorality."

apelqousai (apercomai) aor. part. "perversion" - [and] having gone [after different flesh]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Sodom ....." To "go" opisw, "after", different sarkoV, "flesh", entails engaging in unnatural sexual intercourse as practiced in Sodom and Gomorrah. Sodomy may be in mind, or worse, bestiality, but Jude may be referring to the desire of the men of the city to have sex with the angels visiting Lot. The "flesh" of angels and men is certainly "different".

deigma (a atoV) acc. "as an example of" - [are set forth] as an example. The accusative is adverbial, of content, so David's. Sodom and Gomorrah is set forth "as an example."

uJpercousai (uJecw) pres. part. "those who suffer" - suffering, undergoing [the penalty, punishment]. The NIV treats this participle as a substantive, but often taken to be adverbial, instrumental, "serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire", ESV. Note the present tense, being durative, indicates ongoing punishment, a fire that continues to burn. Such ideas end up in Dante's Divine Comedy, although such is more likely illustrating the terrible loss when a person gives up on an eternal relationship with God, rather than the idea that an unbeliever faces eternal punishment by fire. The issue of eternal punishment remains one of ongoing debate.

puroV (r roV) gen. "of [eternal] fire" - of [eternal] fire. The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic, specifying the "penalty", a punishment consisting of / amounting to everlasting fire. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by fire is constantly used in the scriptures as an object lesson.


ii] The crime of "the ungodly", v8-10. Sadly, the "ungodly", the libertine Christians / heretics Jude has in mind, are rebels in like manner to the Exodus generation, and so, along with the fallen angels and the corrupt populous of Sodom and Gomorrah, they face the same terrible end. They are like the false prophets of old, they defile their bodies with their sexual license, they reject the authority of those who lead the church, and even sneer at those elements of God's revelation that they don't understand ("the glories"). Even the archangel Michael was restrained in his dealings with none less than the devil. When arguing over the burial of Moses, Michael put the devil in his place, not with a damning blast, but with a gentle, although firm rebuke. The "ungodly", on the other hand, sneer at what they don't understand, and, like unreasoning animals, follow their brute instincts into damnation.

oJmiwV mentoi kai "in the very same way" - likewise nevertheless also. The adverb oJmiwV, "likewise, in the same way" is reinforced by mentoi and the adjunctive use of kai, "also". The phrase indicates a step in the argument / a paragraph marker, and serves to apply the illustrations provided in v5-7 to the "ungodly". Of course, mentoi can give a negative slant rather than reinforcement, so possibly "nevertheless" = "notwithstanding" = "In spite of the dreadful fate of the three groups just mentioned the ungodly pursue the same sinful lifestyle, they .....", Kelly.

enupniazomenoi (enupniazomai) pres. mid./pas. part. "on the strength of their dreams" - [these] dreamers. The participle serves as a substantive, "these dreaming ones." Assumed reference to the "ungodly". This descriptor of the "ungodly" probably draws on the negative view held in the scriptures of dreamers, visionaries - usually aligned with false prophets. So, they are dreamers of dreams, devisers of schemes, tainters of truth, ......., evidence by ......

men .... de .... de "..... and .." - on the one hand [defile the flesh] and on the other hand [reject lordship] and [blaspheme glorious beings]. Usually an adversative construction, but here a correlative comparative construction; "they defile their bodies with their sexual license, contemptuously flout human authority, and denigrate divine authority ("glories")."

kuriothta (hV htoV) "authority" - authority, power, dominion. Accusative direct object of the verb "to reject." Obviously not secular authority, but possibly ecclesiastical authority, the authority exercised by the elders and teachers in the church. Heavenly authority may be intended, possibly again good angels are in mind, but human authority seems more likely.

blasfhmousin (blasfhmew) pres. "heap abuse on" - blaspheme, revile, defame. To speak against someone in such a way as to harm or injure his or her reputation (occurring in relation to persons as well as to divine beings)*. Probably the sense "sneer at", Berkley, is close to what is intended.

doxaV (a) "celestial beings" - glories. Accusative direct object of the verb "to blaspheme." This may well be just a general reference to God, the glorious one. The "ungodly" flout not just earthly authorities, but God himself. Usually "the glorious ones" are taken to refer to "things and persons in whom shines the divine majesty", Zerwick, particularly here, good angels, the order of angels known as "glories". Neyrey opts for "angels of the court of the God of glory." Davids* agrees, specifying that they are good angels. Bauckham notes that Paul links the giving of the law with angels, a fact that lowers the status of the law and so has possibly encouraged antinomian believers to "heap abuse on" both the law and its source, the angels. Of course, in the end, the "glories" could be anything, but given v10, the inclination of the "ungodly" to "sneer at what they don't understand", but affirm what they do, namely their instinctual desires, then possibly the "glories" are divine revelation, the apostolic gospel. "This is exactly the same program of these latest infiltrators: dirty sex, rule and rulers thrown out, glory dragged in the mud", Peterson.


de "but even" - but [michael the archangel]. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument, here to the illustration. The audacity of the "ungodly" stands in stark contrast to the considerate behaviour of the archangel Michael, so "Not even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing .....", REB.

oJte "when" - when, Temporal conjunction serving to introduce a temporal clause.

diakrinomenoV (diakrinw) pres. mid. part. "disputing" - [he was disputing, arguing] doubting, evaluating. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb dielegeto, "he was arguing"; "when the archangel Michael was arguing and debating with the devil about the body of Moses." There are only two references in the NT to an "archangel", indicating differing grades of angels. In later Judaism a number of grades were assigned to the angels, even up to seven.

tw/ diabolw/ (oV) dat. "with the devil" - in = with the devil. The dative is instrumental, expressing accompaniment, "debating with", although possibly a dative of interest, disadvantage, "contending against the devil."

peri + gen. "about" - about [the body of moses]. Reference / respect; "about, concerning, with reference to."

epenegkein (epiferw) aor. inf. "to condemn" - [he did not dare] to bring. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "to dare, to be bold." Why not? Sidebottom suggests that although the Devil is a fallen angel, he is still one of the "authorities". Interesting!!

blasfhmiaV (a aV) gen. "for slander" - [an accusation] of slander. The genitive is adjectival, probably best treated as attributive, limiting "accusation, judgment", "a slanderous accusation", but possibly epexegetic, "did not venture to pronounce sentence of his blasphemies", Berkeley.

alla "but" - but [said]. Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction; "not ....., but ....."

epitimhsai (epitimaw) opt. aor."[The Lord] rebuke" - [the lord] rebuke. The optative is used to express a wish. The verb epitimaw, "to rebuke", is often used of subduing dark powers, eg., in exorcisms. For "the Lord rebuke you", see Zech.3:2.

soi dat. pro. "you" - you. Dative of direct object after the epi prefix verb "to denounce, rebuke."


The aggressive and confrontational approach of the "ungodly" is not the product of a superior knowledge. When it comes to the "glories" of revealed truth, the mystery, the gospel, the "ungodly" are without understanding. Their knowledge is instinctual, a product of feelings rather than faith; they are followers of their own passions. They will face God's condemnation on day of judgment.

de "Yet" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument, here to a contrast.

outoi pro. "these people" - these. The pronoun is used as a substantive, "these ones" = the "ungodly", the heretics.

men ... de .. "..... and ...." - on the one hand [they blaspheme what things they do not know] but on the other hand [they understand naturally as unreasoning animals]. Possibly a correlative comparative construction, but more likely adversative; "they sneer at what they do not understand, but they affirm, like unreasoning animals, what is instinctual."

oJsa pro. "the very things" - what things, as much as, whatever. The pronoun is used as a substantive, accusative direct object of the verb "to blaspheme", and again of the verb "to know", cf., Phil.3:18f. Probably "blaspheme" is being used again with the sense "to sneer at", cf., v8. "What they do not understand" is probably God's revelation, cf., "glories", v8. "These men attack with insults everything they do not understand", Barclay; "They are like senseless animals that end up getting destroyed, because they live only by their feelings", CEV.

wJV "as [irrational animals]" - like [unreasoning animals]. Here used as a comparative.

en + dat. "-" - in. Probably instrumental; "by these things they are destroyed; "These things are their ruin", Mayor.

toutoiV dat. pro. "-" - these things [they are corrupted, destroyed, ruined]. This demonstrative pronoun is used as a substantive, backward referencing to oJsa, "whatever".


iii] Jude gives further examples of crime and punishment from the Old Testament, with a further critique on the behaviour of the "ungodly", v11-13. Jude tells us that the manner of life lived by the "ungodly" resembles that of Cain, Balaam and Korah. The "ungodly" resemble Cain, not in the murder of his brother, but in his evil. Jude is drawing on Jewish teaching of the time which identified Cain as a godless sensual man full of violence, lust, greed and blasphemy, cf., Ant.1:52-66 (the history penned by Josephus). The "ungodly" also resemble Balaam. Although there was a good side to Balaam (cf., Num.22-24), in later Judaism the focus fell on his failings as a prophet - it was because of his advice that the Israelites lapsed into idolatry, Num.31:16. Finally, the "ungodly" resemble Korah whose blasphemous rebellion against the authority of Moses and Aaron led to his death and that of his family, with fire from heaven consuming two hundred and fifty of his followers, cf., Num.16:1-35. In the first century, all three figures were "stereotypes of honour challenged, avarice and godlessness. Most important, however, all three were judged and met with a just punishment", Neyrey. The participation of the "ungodly", in the gathering of the Christian fellowship, stains God's people.

"These people are like:

Puffs of smoke pushed by gusts of wind:

late autumn trees stripped clean of leaf and fruit,

Doubly dead, pulled up by the roots;

wild ocean waves leaving nothing on the beach,

but the foam of their shame;

Lost stars in outer space

on their way to a black hole." Peterson.

autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - [woe] to them. If an optative is assumed, "may woe be to them", then we have a dative of indirect object, but possibly just a dative of interest, disadvantage.

oJti "-" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why "Woe" is upon the heretics; "for they walked in the way of Cain", ESV.

th/ oJdw/ (oV) dat. "the way" - [they have gone] in the way. As Davids points out, we are dealing with a semitism such that to "go / walk in the way of someone" is to behave as they have behaved. Davids hesitantly classifies it as a local dative, but possibly better viewed as adverbial, modal, such that the "ungodly" walk in the manner of Cain.

tou kain gen. "of Cain" - of cain. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic, limiting "the way"; "the pathway that Cain travelled."

misqou (oV) gen. "[rushed] for profit" - [and they have been greedily driven for] a profit, reward. The genitive could be classified as a genitive of direct object after the ek prefix verb "to be driven to", but probably better viewed as adjectival, epexegetic, specifying "the error"; they have "abandoned themselves for the sake of gain", ESV.

th/ planh/ (h) dat. "into [Balaam's] error" - in the error, perversion, mistaken belief, deception. As for "in the rebellion", the dative is adverbial, modal, expressing manner, "they are greedily driven for profit in the manner of Balaam's perversion" - see th/ oJdw/.

tou Balaam gen. "Balaam's" - of balaam [and they have perished in the rebellion of korah]. As for "of Korah", and in like manner to "of Cain", we are probably dealing with an adjectival genitive, idiomatic / semitic, "the self deception that Balaam found himself in", but possibly possessive, "Balaam's self-deception", as NIV. Possibly even verbal, subjective.


ou|toi pro. "these people" - these ones. The pronoun serves as a substantive, nominative subject of the verb to-be. Kelly suggests that the repeated "these ones" is disparaging.

spiladeV (aV adoV) "blemishes" - [are the ones feasting together with you], reefs (a hidden danger) / spots, stains, blemishes. This nominative noun stands in apposition to the participle "the ones feasting together with." Note the two possible meanings, "they are the danger", or "they are the stain." "These men are blots on your love feasts", Barclay.

en + dat. "at" - in = at. Local, expressing space.

taiV agapaiV (h) dat. "love feasts" - the love feasts [of you]. It is unclear in the NT whether the term "love feast" is referring to a fellowship meal (a Jewish chaburah meal), or whether it is, or is included with, the celebration of the Lord's Supper / Eucharist, cf., Acts 2:46, 2 Pet.2:13.

oiJ .... suneuwcoumenoi (suneuwceomai) pre. mid./pas. part. "eating with you" - The participle serves as a predicate nominative, with the noun spiladeV, "reefs / stains", standing in apposition; "the ungodly are those who feast with you; they are hidden dangers at / stains on your Love Feasts." Translators often link oiJ (masculine) with spiladeV, (feminine) and treat the participle as adverbial, eg., "These men are a menace to the good-fellowship of your feasts, for they eat in your company without a qualm", Phillips - the syntax may be flawed, but the point is nicely made. NIV which takes a modal tack.

poimainonteV (poimainw) pres. part. "shepherds who feed [only themselves]" - these are are the ones [without fear = shamelessly, irreverently] leading to pasture = tending, looking after [themselves]. The participle serves as a substantive standing in apposition to "the ones feasting together with you."

nefelai (h) "they are clouds" - they are [waterless] clouds. This nominative noun stands in apposition to "the ones feasting together with."

paraferomenai (paraferw) pres. mid./pas. part. "blown along" - being carried about. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting by description "clouds".

uJpo + gen. "by" - by [winds]. Expressing agency; "they are clouds driven by the wind", Barclay.

dndra (a droV) " trees" - they are [late autumn] trees. This nominative noun and it's attributive modifier, "late autumn", stands in apposition to "the ones feasting together with."

ekrizwqenta (ekrizow) aor. pas. part. "uprooted" - [without fruit, having died twice,] having been uprooted. The participle "having died", and its modifier "twice", is adjectival, coordinate with the adjective "fruitless", together limiting "late autumn trees", "trees which are fruitless and twice dead". The participle "having been uprooted" is probably adverbial, consecutive, "and as a result are uprooted"; "trees in autumn without fruit, doubly dead, and so uprooted", Moffatt.


The descriptives of the "ungodly" commenced in v12 continue. Although there are striking similarities between 2 Peter and Jude, the clause, "they are wandering stars for whom the dark gloom has been reserved forever", is the only descriptor wholly shared by both. A Greek poetic source may explain this.

krima "waves" - [they are wild] waves. Again, this nominative noun stands in apposition to the predicate nominative participle oiJ ... suneuwcoumenoi, "the ones feasting together with."

qalasshV (a) gen. "of the sea" - of sea, lake. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, "wild ocean waves", or epexegetic / idiomatic, "wild waves that frequent the ocean."

epafrizonta (epafizw) pres. part. "foaming up" - foaming out [their own shame (shameful acts??)]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "waves", "waves which foam ..."; "wild waves foaming out of their own shame", Moffatt.

astereV planhtai "wandering stars" - they are stars planetary. Together these nominative nouns also stand in apposition to the predicate nominative participle "the ones feasting together with."

oi|V dat. pro. "for whom" - for whom. Dative of interest, disadvantage.

tou skoutouV (oV ouV) gen. "[blackest] darkness" - [the gloom] of darkness. The genitive is adjectival, probably best classified as attributed, "dark gloom", but possibly epexegetic / idiomatic, "the gloom that frequents the deepest depths of hell."

eiV + acc. "forever" - [has been kept] into [the age]. Spacial. The prepositional phrase, eiV aiwna, "into, toward the age" is an idiomatic expression for "eternity."


iv] The future punishment of the ungodly is assured, v14-16. Jude's assessment of the evil ways of the "ungodly", and the consequent judgment that they face, is now supported by a quote from a popular book of the time. Jude's prophetic word of judgment comes from 1Enoch 1:9, reduced from "to destroy the ungodly and convict all flesh" to "convict all the ungodly." For the book of Enoch, it is God who comes as the judge, but for Jude, it is possible that he has in mind the Lord Jesus Christ. Jude obviously thinks it helps drive home the point he want's to make. As for Enoch himself, by our reckoning he was the sixth generation after Adam, a person who "walked with God" and whom God "took", Gen.5:24. Later Judaism saw Enoch as a person in a special relationship with God, a mysterious servant of God who protected the heavenly treasures and its secrets. The early Christian church viewed him as a type of Christ, cf., 1Pet.3:19. So, says Jude, Enoch "prophesied about these", namely, the "ungodly", and the judgment that they now face. They fully deserve judgment, according to Jude, because they are "grumpers, the bellyachers, grabbing for the biggest piece of the pie, talking big, saying anything they think will get them ahead", Peterson, v16.

de "-" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument / paragraph marker.

apo + gen. "from [Adam]" - [enoch, seventh] from [adam]. Expressing separation, "away from." "The seventh in descent from Adam", Cassirer.

kai "-" - and = also. Here adjunctive; "also prophesied about them."

toitouV dat. pro. "[prophesied] about them" - [prophesied] to these ones. The dative is adverbial, reference / respect; "with respect / concerning these (the ungodly)."

legwn (legw) "-" - saying. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of the prophesying, or simply attendant circumstance, "prophesied and said." Either way, it is redundant.

hlqen (ercomai) aor. "[the Lord] is coming" - [behold the lord] came. The aorist is used for the Hebrew prophetic perfect which expresses the idea that a prophesied future action exhibits a completed aspect, so "the Lord will come." "The Lord" is most likely God the Father, but possibly The Lord Jesus Christ.

en + dat. "with" - in [the myriads holy ones of his]. Here expressing association / accompaniment, as NIV, . The myriad holy ones are angels, constantly referred to by Enoch, cf., also Dan.4:13, 8:13. "With tens of thousands of his holy angels", Barclay.


poihsai (poiew) aor. inf. "to judge" - to do [judgment]. As with elegxai, "to convict", the infinitive is adverbial, final, expressing purpose, "in order to"'; to execute judgment", ESV, cf., Jn.5:26.

kata + gen. "-" - against [all]. Here expressing opposition, "against"; "to execute judgment against all", Berkeley.

peri + gen. "-" - [and to convict every soul / person] about, concerning. Here expressing reference / respect, "with respect to" " all the impious deeds they have committed", Moffatt.

asebeiaV (a) gen. adj. "ungodly [acts]" - [all the works] of ungodliness. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "works", as NIV; "all their godless deeds", NAB.

autwn gen. pro. "-" - of them. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, "all their deeds of ungodliness", but possibly verbal, subjective, "all the deeds performed by them."

w|n gen. pro. "-" - which [they impiously did]. This pronoun, genitive by attraction, introduces an attributive modifier limiting "the works", "impious activities which in their godless deeds they have practiced", Berkeley.

peri + gen. "-" - [and] about, concerning [all the cruel, harsh things = words]. Expressing reference / respect; "with respect to ....."

w|n "-" - which [ungodly sinners spoke]. As w\n above, here limiting "the harsh words". "Every defiling act of shameless sacrilege, of every dirty word they have spewed of their pious filth", Peterson.

kata + gen. "against" - against [him]. Expressing opposition.


ou|toi pro. "these people" - these ones [are grumblers]. The pronoun is used as a substantive, nominative subject of the verb to-be. Again, possibly disparaging. This crew are like the grumblers in the wilderness, cf., Ex15:24.

memyimoiroi adj. "and faultfinders" - complaining, grumbling, disgruntled. The adjective, a hapax legomenon (once only use in the NT), serves as a substantive standing in apposition to the predicate nominative "grumblers". The word is used of those who complain about the situation they find themselves in, but here it seems more like "malcontents", REB, or even "censorious", Sidebottom.

poreuomenoi (poreuomai) pres. mid. part. "they follow" - walking. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "faultfinders"; "disgruntled ones who live by their desires", NAB.

kata + acc. "-" - according to [the lusts of them]. Here expressing a standard, "[they behave] according to, corresponding to, in accordance with [their own desires]"; "their conduct is determined by nothing but their own desires", Barclay.

autwn gen. pro. "-" - [and the mouth] of them [speaks boastful words]. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, "their mouth utters boastful speech; "they talk big", Phillips.

qaumazonteV (qaumazw) pres. part. "and flatter" - marvelling at = admiring [the face = persons]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "to boast", as NIV, but possibly adverbial, temporal, "while they flatter to ones face in hope of gain", Berkeley, "as they fawn over people to gain advantage", NAB. The Semitic expression "to take the face" means "to show favouritism", or better, "to curry favour with", Kelly.

carin + gen. "for" - for the sake of [advantage, benefit]. Usually expressing representation, "on behalf of, for the sake of", but here leaning toward advantage, "for the benefit of"; "goal", Davids. "They court favour to gain their ends", REB.


Jude Introduction

TekniaGreek font download


[Pumpkin Cottage]