1 Peter


3. Encouraging suffering churches, 3:13-5:11

v] General exhortations for elders and church members


Peter "now returns to finish what he had to say of the duties which his brethren owed to one another in the communion of the Church", Lillie, Lectures on the First and Second letters of Peter. It is, in a sense, "a summary of the ethical demands of the Christian life", Hiebert. In contrast to the earlier instructions on respect toward secular authority, slave masters, unbelieving partners and slanderers, Peter now gives instruction on "how to treat each other in the shared life of the believing congregation", Michaels.


i] Context: See 3:13-17.


ii] Background: See 1:1-2.


iii] Structure: Peter's final instructions:

General exhortations:

Instructions for church leaders, v1-5a:

To the elders, v1-4;

To the younger leaders, v5a.

Humility in difficult times, v5b-7.

Resisting the devil, v8-9.

Trusting God, v10-11.


iv] Interpretation:

Peter seems to be winding up his letter with final instructions that are unrelated to his main subject material, but this is really not the case. "The writer had deliberately placed his special instruction to leaders and the community as a whole here because, in the testing situation with which all his previous exhortations have been concerned, effective and disinterested pastoral leadership and mutual respect between members is absolutely indispensable", Kelly.

So, having encouraged his readers in the face of suffering, 3:13-4:19, Peter now, in chapter 5, gives instructions to elders on godly leadership, v1-4, and then to younger men on the issue of accepting the authority of their church leaders, v5a, following up with a general exhortation to church members on suffering and steadfastness, v5b-11.

First, in v1-5a Peter give instructions to church elders and to those under their authority. Church leaders" must guide and shepherd their charges, not for financial gain, or ego satisfaction, but willingly and without complaint", Michaels, v1-4. As for those under their authority, "respect the elders authority, and more than that, follow the elder's example by becoming servants to each other in the face of mounting threats among those hostile to their movement", Michaels, v5a.

Then, in v5b-11, Peter encourages his readers toward mutual humility, of resisting the powers of darkness and trusting in the Lord. It is more than likely that this passage is Peter's exposition of Proverbs 3:34, LXX, "God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble." He paraphrases the quote in v6, explains the nature of humility in v7-9, (bring your worries to the Lord, be self controlled, alert to the powers of darkness, firm in faith and accepting of suffering), explains the gift / promise of grace in v10, and ends with a doxology in v11. All this sits under the reality of eschatological suffering, and so provides a guide to appropriate behaviour. It is interesting to note that James attempts an exposition of the same verse cited in 4:6b and expounded in 4:7-10. Naturally, arguments abound as to whether Peter depends on James, or James depends on Peter, but it is likely that they have worked independently of each other. The expositions are similar, as is often the case of sermons on the same text, but differences abound, as would be expected.


v] Exposition: A simple exposition of the passage can be found in the pew-level sermon notes A word in conclusion

Text - 5:1

Final instructions, v1-11: ii] Instructions to church leaders and those under their authority, v1-5a. A congregation set in the midst of an antagonistic society needs a sound leadership team, so Peter addresses those who exercise leadership in the church, explaining that he wants to encourage them in their task. Of course, he has every right to do this because of his own leadership authority as an apostle, and also because of his own participation in the troubles now affecting the Christian church throughout the Roman empire, but above all, because of his eternal standing as a believer.

oun "-" - therefore. Drawing a logical conclusion. Best not translated, given the self-sufficient nature of this passage, none-the-less, the conjunction does tie into the previous passage in that it introduces a logical conclusion from its teaching; "So therefore ...."

presbuterouV (oV) acc. "elders" - [i appeal to] elders. If Peter is just using the common sense of the word then it is age specific, but he is probably drawing on Jewish usage where, although age related (those referred to are mature), it is used of church leaders. At this stage such leadership would be fairly fluid, functional rather an appointment based. "Now I have something to say to those of you who are elders (leaders in the church)", TNT. As for the main verb parakalw, "I appeal, exhort, beech, encourage", it defines the purpose of the verse, or more generally the passage ("if not the entire book", Achtemeier). "I am writing to encourage you", CEV.encourage"

en "among [you]" - in, one / with = among [you]. Here expressing association, "among".

oJ sumpresbuteroV (oV) "as a fellow elder" - as the fellow elder. Nominative standing in apposition to the subject of the verb parakalw, "I appeal." If this letter comes from the hand of Peter, "fellow elder" will obviously allude to his apostolic authority, but at least his functional authority is being noted.

twn .... paqhmatwn (a) gen. "of [Christ's] sufferings" - of the sufferings [of christ]. The genitive is usually classified as verbal, objective, but possibly adjectival, epexegetic; "a witness namely of the sufferings of Christ." The genitive "of Christ" is adjectival, possessive, but possibly attributive, "messianic sufferings", Dubis. Although it is often assumed that Peter is referring to being an eye witness of Christ's suffering, he actually wasn't present at the crucifixion, so possibly "a witness which consists of / which concerns / is about the crucifixion of Christ" (ie. a witness of the gospel), or a witness of the sufferings of Christ in the sense of the suffering of Christ's body the church.

kai "also" - and. Adjunctive, "and also", as NIV.

oJ ... koinwnoV (oV) "one who also will share / who will share" - the partaker, partner. Nominative standing in apposition to "the fellow elder." Again some see a reference here to Peter's participation in the transfiguration and Christ's ascension (thus the selection of this reading for Easter 7), but surely the glory Peter is speaking of is his participation in eschatological glory. "And I will share with you in the glory which is destined to flash upon the world", Barclay.

thV doxhV (h) gen. "in the glory" - of the glory. The genitive, as with twn ... paqhmatwn, "of the sufferings", above.

melloushV (mellw) gen. pres. part. "-" - being about. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "the glory"; "the glory which is about to be revealed."

apokaluptesqai (apokaluptw) pres. pas. inf. "to be revealed" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the verbal aspect of the participle "of the being about."


Peter's advice to leaders is that they must shepherd their flock, v2-4. Leaders are to guard and guide: not as slaves to the job, but as willing volunteers; not as grasping money-mongers, but keen for the job itself, irrespective of the pay; not as dictators who love telling others what to do, but as willing models for imitation. All this needs to be played out in the perspective of eternity, of the crown of glory that transcends all earthly struggle.

poimanate (poimainw) aor. imp. "be shepherds" - shepherd, tend, feed [the flock of god]. The aorist is possibly used to express urgency, so Hiebert. "Be a shepherd" in the sense of "tend by discipline and doctrine", Selwyn, ie., guard and guide.

en + dat. "that is under [your] care" - in = among [you]. Probably local, expressing space, "in" = "among", "in the different localities were the elders live and work", Selwyn / "in whose midst you are", Cassirer, or better, "in your charge", Zerwick / "God has given you", Knox, or simply expressing association, "among you."

episkopounteV (episkopiw) pres. part. "serving as overseers" - overseeing, taking care of = exercising pastoral care. Omitted in some major MSS. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the imperatival verb "to shepherd"; "See to it that your flock of God is properly fed and cared for", Phillips.

mh anagkastwV adv. "not because you must" - not under compulsion, forced. Hapax legomenon, once only use in the NT. At this point Peter uses three pairs of modal adverbial modifiers (adverbs, v2b, adverbial participial phrases, v3), each in a negative-positive / counterpoint construction, serving to further define the manner in which a shepherd shepherds, v2b-3. "not as a reluctant draftee, but rather a willing volunteer."

ekousiwV adv. "because you are willing" - spontaneously, willingly. Adverb of manner. "But like willing volunteers", Barclay.

kata + acc. "as [God] wants" - according to [god]. Expressing a standard. Not in all MSS. "As being in God's service", Selwyn; "In God's way", Zerwick; "according to God's will", Dubis.

mhde aiscrokerdwV adv. "not greedy for money" - not greedily. Adverb of manner. "Not for the mean motive of what you can get out of it", Barclay.

proqumwV adv. "[but] eager to serve" - [but] willingly, eagerly, wholeheartedly, zealously, enthusiastically. Adverb of manner. "But because you actually want to do it yourself."


mhd "not" - Setting up the negative element for the third adverbial modifier; "not bossily telling others what to do, but tenderly showing them the way", Peterson.

wJV "-" - as. Peter uses this particle as a comparative, "like, as if", or adverbial, "in the manner of", and sometimes to express a characteristic quality, "functioning as". Here as a characteristic quality; "not functioning as the one lording it over ...." = "not domineering over ..." Serving to introduce an adverbial phrase, the negative contrast of the third adverbial modifier.

katakurieuonteV (katakurieuw) pres. part. "lording it over" - having power over, lording it over, domineering, exercising complete control over. The participle is possibly adverbial, modal, expressing manner, and modifying episkopounteV, "serving as overseers", although probably better classified as a substantive within an adverbial construction, so Achtemeier; "not in the manner of / functioning as one who is domineering."

twn klhrwn (oV) pl. gen. "those entrusted to you" - of the ones allotted, apportioned, assigned under your ministry. Genitive of direct object after the kata prefix participle "lording it over"; "lording it over those allotted to your charge." Referring to that which is assigned by lot, in this case, that portion of God's people ("of the flock of God", v2) which is assigned by God for a shepherd to guard and guide. The plural "lots" simply aligns with the plural "shepherds" giving one "lot" per "shepherd", v2.

alla "but" - but. Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction.

ginomenoi (ginomai) pres. part. "being" - being. Again, at first glance, this participle looks as if it is adverbial, but it is likely that the particle wJV also introduces and shapes this adverbial phrase, with the participle serving as a substantive, "but in the manner of / functioning as one being an example"; "but as one who serves as an example." Each of them, as elders, "must stand out as a distinct representative of the unseen Master to whom he and his people must be conformed", Fronmuller, via Hiebert.

tou poimniou (oV) gen. "to the flock" - [an image, example, pattern] of the flock. Here a singular noun, see "lots" above. The genitive is usually treated as objective, ie. the genitive "of the flock" receives the action of the verbal noun phrase "one being an example"; "as someone who serves as an example to/for the flock." Yet, the genitive could also be classified as adjectival, attributive, limiting the example of the elder/shepherd, an example which is on behalf of the flock. Possibly even ablative, reference / respect; "with respect to the flock", so Dubis. "But tenderly showing them the way", Peterson.


fanerwqentoV (fanerow) gen. aor. pas. part. "when the [Chief Shepherd] appears" - [the chief shepherd] having been revealed, made known, manifested. The genitive participle, with its genitive subject, forms a genitive absolute construction, probably temporal, as NIV. Peter has already called Jesus "a shepherd", here the master shepherd under whose authority the shepherds shepherd. The appearing is obviously eschatological; "when the chief shepherd is manifested in/at the parousia."

thV doxhV (a) gen. "[the crown] of glory" - [you will receive the unfading crown, garland] of glory. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting crown, "the glorious crown", or of definition / epexegetic, specifying the crown, "the crown which consists of the divine glory", Kelly. For Paul, the crown is a crown of righteousness, 2Tim.4:8, but Peter is probably reflecting its Old Testament use as a symbol of divine glory, a glory in which believers participate at the parousia.


Having counselled church leaders, Peter reminds the newteroi, "the younger men", under their authority to respect that authority.

oJmoiwV adv. "-" - likewise. Adverb of manner; "in the same way ....", Barclay. "The attitude of the young men should parallel the attitude called for on the part of the leaders", Hiebert.

newteroi adj. "young men / you who are younger" - young men. The adjective serves as a substantive, nominative subject of the verb "to submit." Usually taken to refer to younger members of the congregation, even new believers, but it may refer to younger shepherds / elders whose exercise of humility should primarily apply to the more mature shepherds / elders in the congregation. If this is not the case (the lack of articles for "young" and "older" supports this contention), then the comparison in v1-5 is between older persons and younger persons, with Peter's instruction to older persons balanced by a comment to those under their care, cf., husbands, 3:1-6, wives, 3:7, so Achtemeier. In the 1st century, the mature-aged were expected to exercise authority, given their accrued wisdom (a concept not recognised today - hormones are far more important!!!) It is unlikely that Peter is telling deacons to be submissive to priests since this hierarchical structure is a later development in the Christian church, but of course, the advice applies.

uJpotaghte (uJotassw) aor. imp. "be submissive / submit yourselves to" - be subject. The aorist may express urgent action, calling for an immediate willingness to voluntarily submit to "elders". "Younger men (trainee ministers??) should defer to those who are older (leaders??)", Berkeley.

presbuteroiV dat. adj. "to your elders" - to elders. The adjective serves as a substantive, dative of direct object after the verb "to be subject to


ii] An exhortation toward mutual humility, 5b-7. Peter now addresses all his readers, encouraging deference as against the natural tendency to put on airs. He supports his call for humility by quoting Proverbs; "God sets himself against the arrogant, but grants grace to the humble." If we want to appropriate the fullness of God's mercy and kindness / "grace", then our approach to him must be devoid of any claim to self-worth.

de "-" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument; "Now, ....". It seems best to take this as the introduction of a new paragraph / a new subject, rather than link what follows with Peter's instruction to the "young", v5a. So "the exhortation now turns from particular groups within the community to the community as a whole", Best.

panteV adj. "all of you" - all. The adjective serves as a substantive = "everyone".

egkombwsasqe (egkomboomai) aor. imp. "clothe" - put on [humility]. As leaders and their assistants are to be humble, v1-5a, so likewise should the whole Christian community be humble, willingly putting on humility as if putting on a piece of clothing. "Clothe yourselves with humility", Junkins.

allhloiV dat. pro. "toward one another" - to one another. Dative of association, "in your association with one another", or reference / respect, "with respect to each other", or dative of direction, "toward one another."

oJti "because" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why we should clothe ourselves in humility. The explanation is given in the form of a quote from Proverbs 3:34 LXX, as NIV.

antitassetai (antitassw) pres. "opposes" - [god] resists. The present tense is durative such that God continually resists, in the sense of is constantly against, opposed to the proud.

uJperhfanoiV dat. adj. "the proud" - arrogant, proud men. The adjective serves as a substantive, dative of direct object after the anti prefix verb "to resist." The "proud" are those who claim status before God in their own right, ie., theologically proud, rather than socially proud, "haughty", although haughtiness is a natural consequence for those who think that their standing before God is maintained by their own faithfulness.

de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument, here to a contrasting point.

carin (iV ewV) "grace" - [he gives] grace. In the scriptures, the word takes the sense "divine favour (hesed)", "covenant mercy" - of forgiveness bestowed on members of the covenant community when a just condemnation would be more appropriate.

tapeinoiV dat. adj. "to the humble" - to humble men. The adjective serves as a substantive, dative of indirect object. A theological sense is paramount so "those who are broken before God, and claim no right of access to the divine on the basis of their own righteousness", but of course, such an attitude affects social behaviour as well, prompting a humble demeanour where others are considered before self, cf., v2-3.


oun "therefore" - therefore. Drawing a logical conclusion, ie., "therefore, given that scripture tells us that God's grace flows to the humble (v5), humble yourselves ....."

tapeinwqhte (tapeinow) aor. pas. imp. "humble yourselves" - be humbled. The aorist, being punctiliar, gives a sense of urgency to the command. The passive may be treated as a middle voice, so NIV, but better passive, "allow yourselves to be humbled", Selwyn; "accept your humble status under God's mighty hand", Achtemeier.

uJpo + acc. "under" - under. Here expressing subordination.

tou qeou "of God" - [the strong, mighty hand] of god. The genitive is adjectival, possessive. An Old Testament phrase depicting God's sovereignty, eg. Ex.3:19.

iJna + subj. "that" - that [you may be exalted]. The construction usually forms an adverbial clause expressing purpose, "in order that", or hypothetical result, "so that", so Moffatt. God exalts those who put their trust in (are humbled before / accept their humble status before) him, cf. Psalm 9:13. Therefore we must trust /be humbled before God in order that we might be exalted. Peter is still contrasting humility and exaltation in theological terms, of trust in / dependence upon God for salvation. At this point some commentators think that the humility in Peter's mind is a humble acceptance of life's troubles and that we should adopt this attitude "in order that" we might appropriate eschatological exaltation, eg. "humble acceptance of that which God now causes them to endure, is title to ultimate exaltation", Beare. Yet, divine glory is not awarded to those who have a proper attitude toward life's difficulties, but is awarded to those who have a proper attitude toward Christ and his death on their behalf.

en kairw/ "in due time" - in time. Here the preposition en is adverbial, temporal, "when he comes", Moffatt. "In a propitious season / at a proper time", Hiebert, although obviously "in God's good time", Selwyn.


In the Greek, this verse, and verse 6, form a single sentence. A believer's standing in the sight of God rests on a humble acceptance of divine mercy. Peter now extends this attitude toward the circumstances of life, particularly the troubles experienced by his readers. In the same way we throw ourselves on the mercy of God on the basis of his sovereign grace, a grace which we know will be fully realised in the day of glory, so we should cast all our cares on him, in the knowledge that he cares for us. Our attitude toward the day of judgment, of a hope in glory, needs to be the attitude we bring to the troubles that plague us in the here and now. God does not manage the troubles (a debatable issue!!), but he does certainly manage the ultimate outcome. The powers of darkness may have their way, but ultimately their end is sealed - all will be well because our God cares for us.

epipiyanteV (epiptw) aor. part. "cast [all your anxiety]" - having cast. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the imperative verb "be humbled", v6; "be humbled ..... and cast all your cares ..." The participle is imperatival because it is attendant on the imperative "be humbled", rather than carrying imperatival force itself. See earlier notes on imperatival participles in 1 Peter. "Live carefree before God", Peterson.

pasan adj. "all" - all, every [anxiety of you]. Emphatic by position.

ep (epi) + acc. "on" - upon [him]. Spacial

oJti "because" - Introducing a causal clause explaining why we should cast all our cares on God. References to God's providential care are found throughout the Old and New Testament, cf., Jesus' take on the subject, Matt.6:25-34. It is clearly stated that God is "concerned with the afflictions of man", Beare. What is not clearly stated is that God promises to intervene on our behalf when we face difficult times, in fact, what he promises is difficult times - the sufferings of Christ / glory through suffering! It is the difficult times of a world in chaos, that conflicts with the divine spark in every human being, and prompts our search for a better place.

autw/ "he" - [it is a concern, matters] to him. Dative of reference / respect; "with respect to him (God)."

peri + gen. "for" - about, concerning [you]. Expressing reference / respect.


iii] Resisting the powers of darkness, v8-9. The Great Deceiver, Satan, is out to undermine our standing with God, so in the face of life's circumstances, its temptations and trials, we must keep a cool head and stay alert. Above all, we must constantly refocus our faith in Christ; rest on him alone.

nhyate (nhfw) aor. imp. "be self-controlled" - be sober, self-controlled. Probably in respect to persecution / end time tribulations, Selwyn, or possibly a sober eschatological watchfulness, Best; "be self controlled and vigilant always", Phillips.

grhgorhsate (grhgorew) aor. imp. "and alert" - be alert, wakeful, watchful. Both sobriety and watchfulness, within an eschatological context, are encouraged in 1Thes.5:6.

oJ antidikoV (oV) "enemy" - the adversary, foe, opponent [of you]. Nominative subject of the verb "to walk around." In Hebrew "the one who opposes is Satan. The word was initially used in a legal setting, but was extended to cover any opponent.

diaboloV (oV) "the devil" - devil, accuser. Nominative standing in apposition to "the adversary." This word was used in the LXX to translate the MT (Hebrew ) Satan, used in later Old Testament writings of the one who accuses humanity before God. "In the NT he is the tempter, the rebellious prince of evil, the antichrist and perverter of God's purposes, the vicious power to whom God allows temporary domination over the world", Kelly, or as the old chorus often reminds us, "he's got the whole world in his hands, .....", Oops!!!!

peripatei (peripatew) pres. "prowls around" - walks around. Cf. Job 1:7.

wJV "like" - as, like. Here comparative, ", like / in like manner of"

wruomenoV (wruomai) pres. part. "a roaring" - a roaring [lion]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "lion", as NIV. We should not forget that, although the devil is indeed stalking us, as a lion stalks its prey, he presents, not so much as a roaring lion, but as an angel of light. So, if for example we are seeking God's will by the open / closed doors method, it's the open doors we need to be suspicious of! When it comes to determining God's will, the principles of scripture are our safest guide.

zhtwn (zhtew) pres. part. "looking for" - seeking [whom]. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of the lion's walking around; it is wandering around in a hunting mode.

katapiein (katapinw) pres. inf. "to devour" - to swallow. Variant katapiei pres. subj., "he may swallow / devour." The infinitive is probably adverbial, expressing purpose: seeing with the purpose of destruction.


w|/ dat. pro. "him" - to whom [stand up against, resist, oppose, withstand]. Dative of direct object after the anti prefix verb "to stand up against".

stereoi adj. "standing firm" - being firm, solid, steadfast, strong. Predicate adjective. Best to assume a participial construction, modal, expressing the manner of resisting the devil; "you must resist him with a rock-like faith", Barclay.

th/ pistei (iV ewV) dat. "in the faith" - The dative is probably adverbial, expressing means, "by the faith", or possibly reference / respect, "being strong with respect to your faith." The presence of the article implies that "faithfulness" is not intended. Nor does it mean "the faith", in the sense of Christian belief, but rather that particular personal trust / reliance on Christ which saves; "Firmly resist him in every way by being strong in your trust of Messiah Saviour", Junkins.

eidoteV (oida) perf. part. "because you know" - having known, realised [the same of sufferings]. The participle is adverbial, probably causal, as NIV; "because you realise that the same issues, namely troubles, are being experienced by your fellow believers throughout the world."

epiteleisqai (epitelew) pres. mid. / pas. inf. "that ...... is undergoing" - [the same of sufferings] to be laid upon, completed, fulfilled, accomplished = experienced by. Hapax legomenon, once only use in the NT, and taking a number of possible meanings: a) to pay a tax, b) to perform a religious duty, and c) either mid. = to accomplish / complete a personal obligation, or pas. to be accomplished, / completed / fulfilled / carried out / played out / "accomplished as divinely appointed", Hiebert, so "experienced", "happening or taking place", Michaels. Passive is best; "realising that the same things, that is the sufferings, are being experienced by." The infinitive forms an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what is known. An accusative infinitive construction is evident with ta auta, "the same things", and its modifier, serving as the subject of the infinitive. See Beare for a survey of syntactical approaches.

th/ .... adelfothti (hV htoV) dat. "[your] brothers / the family of believers" - the brotherhood, fellow believers [of you]. The dative is probably instrumental / agency, so "experienced by [your] fellow believers throughout the world", although the epi prefix verb "to be laid upon" = "experienced by", may well take a dative of direct object.

en + dat. "throughout" - in [the world]. Local; expressing space.

ta auta pro. "the same kind" - the same. The articular adjective serves as a substantive, "the same things", subject of the infinitive epiteleisqai, "to be laid upon = experienced by"; "knowing that the same things .... are being experienced by your brothers"

twn paqhmatwn (a atoV) gen. "of sufferings" - The genitive is adjectival, epexegetic, specifying "these things"; "these things that consist of sufferings", so Achtemeier; "realising that the same things, that is the sufferings, are being experienced by....."


iv] Trusting in the Lord, v10-11. We must never forget that life's troubles are for a moment, but God's blessings are eternal, and he will equip, stabilise, strengthen and establish us to that end.

de "and" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument, here adding something new, so "moreover", Hiebert.

caritoV (iV itoV) gen. "of [all] grace" - [the god] of [all] grace. The genitive is adjectival, possibly, attributive, "the gracious God", Achtemeier, or idiomatic / producer, so Dubis, "and God, the source of all grace", Cassirer. The "all" is probably "all varieties of."

oJ kalesaV (kalew) aor. part. "who called" - the one having called [you]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "God", as NIV. Probably not with the limited sense of "selected", but rather the wider sense of "invited".

eiV "to" - to, into. The preposition here may well express purpose; "in order that you may share his eternal glory."

thn ... doxan (a) "glory" - the [eternal] glory. "Glory" entails the full range of divine blessings that are ours in our association with / by means of Christ's actions on our behalf, which gifts are ours eternally, ie. they abide.

en + dat. "in" - in [christ jesus]. Probably local, expressing space, metaphorical / incorporative union, such that grace is found in association with Christ, but also possibly instrumental, the grace is by means of Christ, "who through Christ called you into his eternal glory", Barclay.

paqontaV (pascw) aor. part. "after you have suffered" - having suffered. The participle is adverbial, temporal, as NIV. The "you" is assumed, since the reference could be to Christ's sufferings, although this is unlikely.

oligon adv. "a little while" - a little. A temporal sense seems likely, as NIV, although degree of suffering is possible. These words could be viewed as if devaluing the troubles, a kind of "don't be cry-babies", but Peter is simple reminding us that our life here, troubled or otherwise, is but a grain of sand on the beach of eternity.

autoV pers. pro "himself" - he. Here a reflective use of the personal pronoun, and emphatic by position, as NIV.

katartisei (katartizw) fut. "will [himself] restore you" - will restore, mend, reestablish, make whole [and he will confirm, support, fix firmly you, and he will make strong, impart strength you, and he will establish, found, lay a foundation for you]. This is the first of a series of four future indicative verbs which Peter lists without any linking particles, a feature not observable in the NIV; "the God of all grace ..... will, after you have suffered awhile, personally equip, stabilise, strengthen and firmly establish you", Berkeley. These four verbs serve as "a final assurance of the providence of God, who will in the end make them fit for the glorious destiny to which He has called them in Christ", Beare. They are promises of perseverance for the individual readers as they face the coming day, although some commentators see them more in terms of a promise for the ongoing life of the Christian community, so Elliott, Selwyn, ... "God will supply believers with the needed support so that they will not topple and fall, impart the needed strength so that they will not collapse, and set them upon an immovable foundation so that they will not be swept away", Hiebert.


In a final word, Peter gives praise to God, the one who has the power to carry through his intentions on our behalf.

autw/ pers. pro. "to him" - to him. Dative of interest, advantage with an optative verb assumed; "May power be ascribed to him", but possibly an indicative statement, rather than a wish-prayer, "power belongs to him", in which case the dative is possessive, so Dubis.

to kratoV (oV ouV) "[be] the power" - is, be the power to rule, might. Cf. doxology in 4:11. Here the mighty power of God is affirmed, a power evident in the four descriptives in v10.

eiV touV aiwnaV "for ever and ever" - into the age. A common phrase for "eternally, forever."

amhn "amen" - truly, indeed = may it be so.


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