Entering the promised land, 11:1-16:20
The meal concluded, Jesus and his disciples sing a Psalm and then leave the upper room. They pass through the city gate, across the Kidron valley and up to the Mount of Olives. On the way, Jesus tells his disciples that they are about to abandon him. Of course, Peter protests, as do they all, but it is even worse for Peter; he will deny Jesus.
At an olive grove named Gethsemane, Jesus is driven to prayer. Leaving the other disciples outside the grove, Jesus takes Peter, James and John with him to share in this time of prayer together. Jesus is overcome with agony, aware of what is about to happen. He moves aside to pray by himself. From the beginning Jesus was tempted to find another way to realise the kingdom apart from his sacrifice, and so he prays that the removal of the cup suffering, "yet, not what I want, but what you want." Three times Jesus is overtaken in prayer, and three times he returns to find the disciples sleeping. On the third occasion, Jesus announces that "my betrayer is at hand."
Under the authority of the Sanhedrin, an arresting part, led by Judas, reaches Jesus and the disciples. Judas kisses Jesus, as is the custom of a disciple greeting his Rabbi, and this serves as the signal to mark Jesus out in the dull evening light. One of the disciples tries to resist. John tells us that it was Peter, who, having drawn his sword, cuts off the ear of one of the arresting party. Jesus protests his treatment as a common criminal, given that daily he is to be found teaching in the Temple. With Jesus taken into custody, the disciples flee the scene.
The episode concludes with Mark's account of a young man who follows the arresting party and is nearly arrested himself. Many commentators take the view that this is Mark's way of saying that he was an eyewitness to the arrest of Jesus.
The Son of Man is handed over to the powers of darkness for the sake of those entrapped in darkness.
i] Context: See 14:1-11.
ii] Structure: Gethsemane:
Jesus prophesies that the twelve will desert him, v26-31;
Jesus suffers in prayer, v32-42;
The arrest of Jesus, v43-50;
The flight of the young man, v51-52.
Jesus' prediction of the scattering of the prophetic fulfilment of the scattering of the sheep, v26-31, serves as the last part of a Markan sandwich covering v17-31. This sandwich effectively contrasts the grace evident in the Lord's Supper with the graceless behaviour of the disciples.
A1. Jesus predicts his betrayal, v17-21;
B. The last supper, v22-26;
A2 Pride comes before a fall, v27-31.
"It is .. not the worthy for whom Jesus lays down his life, but precisely the unworthy - even cowardly and unfaithful followers. The sandwich illustrates the truth of Romans 5:8, 'God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us'", Edwards.
Mark now draws out the cost of Jesus' mission to the unworthy. Before detailing the physical cost, the painful humiliation of the cross, we are given a glimpse into the psychological cost. Jesus' mission to the unworthy, the lost and broken children of God, must be according to the will of God the Father; Jesus must now submit to that will.
Mark portrays the internal struggle that Jesus goes through as a struggle of the human will, with that of the divine will. The human will, evident in the disciples' inability to even stay awake with Jesus, along with Jesus' own doubts and fears, is overshadowed by Jesus' ultimate determination to submit to the Father's will. It is in that determination to submit to suffering and death that the unworthy are made worthy of God's affectionate love.
Jesus predicts Peter's denial, v27-31: Matt.26:31-35; Lk.22:31-34; Jn.13:36-38. There is alignment between Mark and Matthew, less so with Luke.
Gethsemane: v32-42: Matt.26:36-46; Lk.22:39-46. It is more than likely that a written, rather than oral, tradition lies behind Mark's account, a tradition employed by all three synoptic gospels.
Jesus' arrest, v43-52: Matt.26:57-68; Lk.22:54-55, 63-71; Jn.18:13-14, 19-24. Again, eye-witness testimony is evident behind the account.
Text - 14:26
Gethsemane, v26-52. i] A prophecy of failure and denial, v26-31.
uJmnhsanteV (umnew) aor. part. "When they had sung a hymn" - [and] having sung a psalm. The participle is adverbial, best treated as temporal, as NIV. Possibly the Passover Psalm 114 / 115.
eiV + acc. "to" - [they went out] into. Expressing the direction of the action and arrival at; obviously direction toward here. Pilgrims were supposed to reside in Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover, but by this time near was good enough.
twn elaiwn (a) gen. "of Olives" - [the mount] of olives. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / identification; "the hill known as Olives." This hill is some two kilometres outside the city wall.
Jesus quotes from Zechariah 13:7, predicting the coming flight of the disciples in the face of his arrest and execution.
autoiV dat. pro. "them" - [and jesus says] to them. Dative of indirect object.
oJti "-" - that [all you will be scandalised, offended, ensnared]. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of direct speech. The sense of the verb skandalisqhsesqe is unclear and is translated in numerous ways. The NIV "fall away" is quite strong, as if the disciples will lose their faith; "fall from your faith", NIB. "Their courage will fail and they will abandon him", TH, is more likely; "there are none of you whose courage will stand the test", Barclay.
oJti "for" - because [it is written]. Introducing a causal clause explaining why they will be scandalised.
diaskorpisqhsontai (diaskorizw) fut. pas. "will be scattered" - [i will strike, smite = slay the shepherd and the sheep] will be scattered, dispersed. Mark uses a fut. ind. while in the LXX and MT it is an imperative. "The sheep shall be scattered far and wide", Cassirer.
Jesus promises that the shepherd will be reunited with the scattered flock in Galilee following his resurrection.
meta to + inf. "after" - [but] after the [to be raised]. This preposition with the articular infinitive forms a temporal clause, subsequent time.
proxw (proagw) fut. "I will go ahead of" - i will go before, precede [you]. Cranfield gives three possible ways of understanding the word here, opting for the third: A literal sense, "walking in front of", so Weiss; A metaphorical sense, "Jesus will lead the disciples in the sense that it will be in obedience to his instructions"; A grammatical sense, "go somewhere earlier than someone", so also Decker.
eiV + acc. "into" - into [galilee]. Expressing the direction of the action.
Peter, ignoring Jesus' words about a promised reunion, separates himself from the disciples, claiming that others may lose courage, but not him.
oJ de "-" - but/and he [peter]. Transitional, indicating a step in the discourse, a move from Jesus to Peter.
autw/ dat. pro. "-" - [says] to him. Dative of indirect object.
ei + ind. "[even] if" - [and = even] if, as is the case, [all = everyone loses heart]. Introducing a 1st., class conditional clause where the proposed condition is assumed to be true.
all (alla) "-" - but [i will not]. This adversative introduces the apodosis of the conditional clause, establishing a contrast between the protasis and the apodosis.
soi dat. pro. "you" - [and jesus said to him, truly i say] to you. Dative of indirect object. The adverb "truly" always proceeds an important statement from Jesus.
oJti "-" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of direct speech expressing what Jesus says.
prin h] "before" - before [the cock, rooster crows]. Idiomatic temporal construction. Common in Koine Gk. The rooster crowing twice may well be an idiomatic term for dawn, but it may well be a literal crowing twice before Peter disowns Jesus. One interesting theory is that the term is used of the sounding of the gallicinium trumpet at the end of the third watch in a Roman garrison - the change of guard at 3am.
su pers. pro. "you yourself" - you [today, this night, will deny me three times]. Emphatic use of the personal pronoun; "even you."
Peter affirms his allegiance, and the other disciples join in. Ironically, in a few hours time, they will all be running for the hills.
oJ de "but" - but/and he [emphatically, vehemently, he said]. Transitional, indicating a step in the discourse, a move from Jesus to Peter.
ean + subj. "even if" - if. Introducing a 3rd. class conditional clause where the proposed condition has the possibility of coming true; "if, as may be the case, ...... then by no means will I deny you."
sunapoqanein (sunapoqnhskw) aor. inf. "to die with" - [it is necessary me] to die together with. The infinitive, and its accusative subject me, "me", serves as the subject of the impersonal verb "it is necessary."
soi dat. pro. "with" - to you. Dative of direct object after the sun prefix verb "to die together with" / of association, "with you."
ou mh + fut. "never" - not not = in no way, never ever [will i disown, renounce, deny you, but/and and = also likewise, in the same manner, said all]. Emphatic negation, usually formed with a subjunctive, but here a future tense. "'Even if I had to suffer death by your side, I shall never disown you', and all the others spoke in the same way", Cassirer.
ii] Jesus suffers in prayer, v32-42. Jesus now experiences the full psychological force of his impending handing over by God to the powers of darkness. He would have the disciples support him in his time of testing, but they continue to display all the failings which make his sacrifice necessary.
ercontai (ercomai) pres. "They went" - [and] they are coming. The use of the historic / narrative present tense indicates narrative transition / a new paragraph.
eiV + acc. "to [a place]" - [and they came] to, into [a place, field, plot of land, estate, of which the name gethsemane (olive grove, oil press)]. Spatial, expressing the direction of the action and arrival at. Gethsemane is probably a walled olive grove with oil press and was situated on the lower slopes of the Mount of Olives. Obviously Judas knew the site and assumed Jesus would be there, and of course, Jesus knew that Judas knew.
toiV maqhtaiV (hV ou) gen. "disciples" - [and he said] to the disciples [of him]. Dative of indirect object.
eJwV + subj. "while [I pray]" - [sit down here] until [i pray]. Temporal construction, "until", eJwV (usually eJwV an) + subj., as here, expressing future action with respect to the main verb, although usually translated here to express action occurring at the same time as the main verb, "while", as NIV, usually eJwV + ind.. With the aorist, "until I finish praying", TH.
Luther suggested that Jesus took the three disciples along to keep him company, but as Cranfield notes, the purpose (in Mark's account of the incident) "is actually to make more inescapably clear the fact of his aloneness."
met (meta) + gen. "with [him]" - [and he takes peter and james and john] with [him]. Expressing association.
ekqambeisqai (ekqamew) pres. mid. inf. "to be deeply distressed" - [and he began] to be deeply distressed, alarmed [and to be troubled, anxious]. The infinitive, as with "to be troubled", is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "to begin." "To be greatly distraught", Brown; "full of terror and distress", Weymouth.
autoiV dat. pro. "[he said] to them" - [and he says] to them. Dative of indirect object.
eJwV + gen. "to the point of [death]" - [the soul of me is very sad, distressed] up to [death, remain here and stay awake]. Here serving as a spatial preposition; "up to, as far as, to the point of". Although Jesus' perilupoV, "extreme sorrow, distress" may be prompted by the thought of his coming death, we are best to follow Decker who suggests the phrase "to the point of death" is an idiomatic, expressing the depth of one's sorrow. But why this emotion? "Sorrow", seems unlikely; better "a soul wrenching distress, anguish", even bordering on "fear", so Luther. Given the content of Jesus' prayer, it seems likely that Jesus is being overwhelmed in a final contest with the powers of darkness, tempted to find another way, a way other than the cross. "Now, in the garden, Satan returns in force and in all his majesty as the prince of this world, to avenge his earlier defeat; and Jesus sees now in appalling immediacy, the full cost of his steadfast obedience", Cranfield. "My heart is tortured. Stay here and keep vigil with me."
In his prayer, "Jesus is not of course setting himself against God's purpose (note, 'if it were possible'), but expressing his dread of the necessity of the suffering that God's hour lays upon him", Anderson. The coming "hour" is a "cup" of suffering / wrath which fills Jesus with dread. Mark clearly views it as salvic, but other than 10:45, 14:24, he doesn't exegete "the mystery of God's saving act in the weakness and death of the truly human Jesus of Nazareth", Boring.
proelqwn (proercomai) aor. part. "going [a little] further" - [and] having gone before [a little, he was falling, prostrating himself, upon the ground and was praying]. Adverbial, best treated as temporal; "then he went forward a little, and fell on the earth, praying", Moffatt. Note that the adjective mikron, "little", is used as a local adverb, spatial, expressing a short distance, "some [short] distance further", Cassirer. Note also the use of the imperfect verbs, "having fallen" and "praying", probably indicating the provision of background information rather than serving to emphasise durative aspect.
iJna "that" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what Jesus prayed. Possibly introducing an epexegetic clause, or even final expressing purpose, but unlikely.
ei + ind. "if" - if, as is the case, [it is possible, can be done then]. Introducing a 1st. class conditional clause where the proposed condition is assumed to be true.
ap (apo) + gen. "from [him]" - [the hour might pass away, pass by] from [him]. Expressing separation, "away from." The word wJra, "hour", is used to identify a critical moment in time - "the hour might pass by" = "he might not have to face this terrible crises", Barclay; "ordeal", Phillips, cf., Dan.11:35, 40, 45, etc. Jesus views this critical moment as a pothrion, "a cup", a cup of divine judgment, wrath. Both words are being used here as "metaphors for the passion in its deeper redemptive significance", Lane.
As Cranfield notes, the force of Jesus' prayer is not upon the possible setting aside of "the cup", but his willingness to set his lips to it in accord with the divine will
abba "Abba, [Father]" - [and he said] abba [father]. Nominative of address, equivalent to a vocative. Used of an intimate address by an adult to their father, but not a child to their father; not "Daddy"', rather, "O my dear Father." This term would not be normally used of an address to God.
soi dat. pro. "for you" - [all things are possible] to you. Dative of interest, advantage; "for you." "You are able to do all things."
to pothrion (on) "cup" - [take away, remove / cause to pass by this] cup. Accusative direct object of the verb "to take away." Metaphorically, the word "cup" is used of both suffering and divine wrath related to the end of the age, cf., Dan.11:40,45; see "hour" above. Both "hour" and "cup" "do not refer to Jesus' impending arrest, but to his messianic destiny as 'the ransom for many' and 'the handing over of the Son of Man to sinners' in order to redeem sinners", Edwards.
apo + gen. "from [me]" - from [me]. Expressing separation; "away from."
all ...... alla "yet ...... but" - but [not what i will] but [what you will]. The first is used to express a contrast, and the second serves within a counterpoint construction; "not ......, but ...." Note the use of the emphatic personal pronouns egw, "I", and su, "you".
Jesus has coopted his closest disciples to share in prayer with him and so help strengthen his resolve as he faces the temptation of flight. Even this service is beyond the three. Three times they fail, just as Peter will deny Jesus three times. In the end, Jesus stands firm and the disciples flee.
kaqeudontaV (kaqeudw) pres. part. "sleeping" - [and he comes and finds them] sleeping. The participle serves as the complement of the direct object "them", standing in a double accusative construction and asserting a fact about the object "them".
tw/ petrw/ (oV) "to Peter" - [and he says] to peter. Dative of indirect object.
grhgorhsai (gregorew) aor. inf. "keep watch" - [simon, you are sleeping! you were not strong] to stay awake [one hour]! The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the negated verb "to be strong." The modern Gk. text has two questions, but of course, the semicolons are not part of the original text, but were added later to aid reading. Gundry argues that Jesus' words to Peter are not questions, but statements; "And he says to Peter, 'Simon, you are sleeping! You weren't strong enough to keep awake for one hour!" This approach to the text solves the problem caused by the negation ouk, prompting the answer "yes" if the clause is read as a question.
iJna + subj. "so that [you will not fall]" - [stay awake, watch and pray] that [you may not come]. The NIV opts for a purpose clause, so Edwards, France ...., but it is likely that the construction here introduces an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what the disciples should pray for, so Gundry, Moule, Decker ....
eiV + acc. "into [temptation]" - into [temptation, test, trial]. Metaphorical use of the prepositional phrase "come into" =" succumb to", Gundry, or reference / respect, "with respect to ...." Probably "temptation", rather than "test" or "trial, so" the temptation to sleep on the job, rather than support Jesus in prayer. The disciples' intention is to pray with Jesus, but their commitment is flimsy.
men .... de "....., but ..." - on the one hand, [the spirit is willing] but on the other hand [the flesh is weak]. An adversative comparative construction. "Spirit" and "flesh" are "here presented as distinct and antithetical elements of man's nature", TH. "I know that you mean well and that you want to do the right thing, but human nature is frail", Barclay.
apelqwn (apercomai) aor. part. "[he went away]" - [and again] having gone away, departed [he prayed]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb to pray; "he went away and prayed", ESV.
eipwn (legw) aor. part. "-" - having said [the same word]. Adverbial, instrumental, expressing means; "using the same words as before", Cassirer.
elqwn (ercomai) aor. part. "when he came back" - [and again] having come, returned. The participle is adverbial, best treated as temporal, as NIV; "Then he returned", Moffatt.
kaqeudontaV (kaqeudw) pres. part. "sleeping" - [he found them] sleeping. Object complement, as v37.
gar "because" - for. Introducing a causal clause explaining why Jesus found them sleeping again, because they were tired.
katabaruniomenoi (katabarunw) pres. part. "[eyes were] heavy" - [the eyes of them were] being weighed down. The present participle and the imperfect verb to-be forms an imperfect periphrastic construction, possibly emphasising durative aspect. "They could not keep their eyes open", Phillips.
tiv + subj. "what [to say]" - [and they did not know] what [they might answer, reply to him]. This construction introduces an object clause / dependent statement of indirect question, expressing what the disciples would have asked, if expressed, in response to Jesus finding them asleep again; "What will we say to him?" "And they did not know what excuse to give him", Berkeley.
Satan's "hour" is at hand and the time for prayer, and also sleeping on the job, is over. "The hour has come" is explained in the statement "The Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners." It is the "hour", that fateful moment in human history, when God the Father delivers the Son of Man, the messiah, into the hands of sinful men / the heathen / Satan for his victorious humiliation.
autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - [and he comes the third time and says] to them. Dative of indirect object.
to loipon adj. "still [sleeping]" - [sleep] the remaining [and rest]. The accusative articular adjective is adverbial, "still, meanwhile", BDAG. The two verbs may be imperative, "from now on, do sleep and take your rest", Cassirer, but are usually taken as indicative, either as a question, as NIV, or a statement, "you can sleep on now and have your rest. It is all over", NJB, or an exclamation, or even better, a rebuke; "Here they are, my loyal disciples, still sleeping and having a nice little rest. Enough is enough! The time is up ...."
apecei (apecw) pres. "Enough!" - get, be off [the hour has come]. The sense is unclear, either with, or without, "the hour has come". Cranfield suggests the following, with the first the most probable:
•i"It is sufficient", "Enough of this", possibly a rebuke, or better an indication that the time for sleeping is over and that the Son of Man's time is at hand; "It is settled", Lane.
•iA technical commercial sense - Judas has received the money, or just "it is paid up."
•iReading the variant to teloV with apecei = "it is ended / it is finished."
•iPossibly used for the Aramaic word meaning "presses", or "is faraway" = "the end is pressing", "the hour has come", or with to teloV, "the end is far away."
eiV + acc. "into [the hands]" - [the son of man is betrayed] into [the hands of sinners]. Expressing the direction of the action and arrival at; metaphorical. For "Son of Man" see 2:10.
Moule give weight to "Let us go forward!" "Jesus sees the situation as a great campaign - the battle of the kingdom of God. His friends are summoned to 'advance' like soldiers entering battle. But is it a battle in which Jesus will not use physical force, but only the weapon of loyalty to God's will."
paradidouV (paradidwmi) pres. part. "betrayer" - [get up, rouse yourself let us go, behold] the one betraying [me has drawn near, come near]. The participle serves as a substantive, nominative subject of the verb "to draw near." "My betrayer has arrived", Peterson.
iii] The arrest of Jesus, v43-50. Away from the crowds and with Judas as their guide, the religious authorities are able to arrest Jesus quietly and dispose of him with the least amount of fuss.
lalountoV (lalew) gen. pres. part. "just as he was speaking" - [and immediately, he still] speaking. The genitive participle, with its genitive subject autou, "he", forms a genitive absolute construction, temporal; "and immediately, while he was still speaking", ESV. Reinforced by the temporal adverbs, "immediately" and "still".
twn dwdeka gen. adj. "of the twelve" - [judas, one] of the twelve [appears, comes = arrives]. The adjective serves as a noun, the genitive being adjectival, partitive. "One of the twelve" stands in apposition to Judas. Note the historic / narrative present tense verb "to appear", most likely used to indicate narrative transition / a new paragraph.
met (meta) + gen. "with [him]" - [and] with [him a crowd] with [swords and staffs, clubs]. Expressing accompaniment / association; "accompanied by a mob with swords and cudgels", Moffatt. Rather than "a mob", probably "a force", Rieu, a lightly armed mixed force of temple police and officials. The "swords" used by the local authorities at this time were long knives, rather than Roman swords.
para + gen. "sent from" - from beside [the chief priests and the scribes and the elders]. Here expressing source / origin. Identifying those authorising Jesus' arrest; the three representative groups of the Sanhedrin.
de "now" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative.
oJ paradidouV (paradidwmi) pres. part. "the betrayer" - the one delivering over, betraying [him had given a sign, a signal to them]. The participle serves as a substantive.
legwn (legw) pres. part. "-" - saying. The participle is adverbial. Decker suggests it is instrumental, expressing means, "by means of a prearranged signal."
o}n an + subj. "the one" - whomever [i may kiss, he is jesus, seize = arrest him and lead him away under guard safely = securely]. Introducing an indefinite relative clause, which here serves as an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what Judas was legwn, "saying".
elqwn (ercomai) aor. part. "going" - [and] having come [immediately having approached]. The participle, as for "having approached", is adverbial, temporal. With the temporal adverb "immediately", we have something like "And when he come to where the disciples were gathered, he then immediately went up to Jesus and said, 'Rabbi.'"
autw/ dat. pro. "Jesus" - him [he says, rabbi, and he kissed him]. Dative of direct object after the proV prefix verb "to approach, come to." As is the customary greeting, the kiss is on the cheek. Gundry argues for foot or hand, but Decker suggests this is unlikely. In the Western tradition, we offer the right hand to indicate we haven't got a dagger in it - obviously we are less trusting than our Eastern friends!
oiJ de "-" - but/and they. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative.
autw/ dat. pro. "[seized] Jesus" - [they placed upon] him [the hands and seized = arrested him]. The epi prefix verb "to place on" takes a dative of direct object. The phrase "to place hands upon" is idiomatic for "to seize / grab hold of."
twn paresthkotwn (paristhmi) gen. perf. part. "of those standing near" - [but/and one] of the ones having stood by. The participle serves as a substantive, the genitive being adjectival, partitive. The variant tiV, "a certain person", if original, may indicate that Mark knows who it was, but is not saying, so Lagrange. John18:10 identifies the person as Peter.
spasamenoV (spaw) aor. mid. part. "drew" - having drawn out [the sword, hit the slave, servant of the high priest and took away = cut off the ear of him]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "to hit, strike." Taylor suggests "the lobe of the ear." John tells us that the servant's name is Malchus - a common Nabatean name.
apokriqeiV (apokrinomai) aor. pas. part. "-" - [and] having answered [jesus said to them]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "to say"; redundant. Typical idiomatic construction serving to introduce speech, often with a dative of direct object, as here.
wJV "-" - as, as if, like. The comparative serves to introduce a comparative clause; "you come out with swords and clubs to arrest me as if you are coming out against a thief / robber" = "as if you were out to arrest a brigand", Barclay.
epi + acc. "-" - upon = against [a thief do you come out]. Here this spatial preposition expresses opposition, "against". Possibly a statement rather than a question; "It is with swords and cudgels in hand that you have come out to apprehend me, yet every day ....", Cassirer.
meta + gen. "with" - armed with [swords and clubs]. Expressing association / accompaniment.
sullabein (sullambanw) aor. inf. "to capture me?" - to seize, take hold of, apprehend [me]? The infinitive here is adverbial, final, expressing purpose, "in order to arrest me"
If the authorities wanted to apprehend Jesus, he was always in easy reach. The incongruity of this arrest, only serves to show its illegality. Yet, its illegality serves to fulfil the scriptures. As for what scriptures, certainly Zech 13:7, possibly also Exod.24:8, Isa.53:12 and numerous references in the Psalms.
kaq hJmeran "Every day" - according to day. Distributive use of the preposition kata. Idiomatic; "daily, every day."
proV + acc. "with [you]" - [i was] toward [you in the temple]. Here expressing association, "with, in company with."
didaskwn (didaskw) pres. part. "teaching" - teaching [and you did not arrest me]. The function of this participle is not overly clear, but adverbial, temporal is likely; "I was within your reach as I taught you in the temple", NEB. Cranfield notes that it was unlikely that the temple police were students of Jesus in the temple, but the point is clear enough.
all (alla) "but" - but [all this is happening]. The ellipsis further emphasises the adversative "but".
iJna + subj. "-" - that [the scriptures may be fulfilled, completed]. Here introducing a final clause expressing purpose; "in order that the scriptures might be fulfilled." Such "justifies the manner of Jesus' arrest", France. Some commentators argue that the construction here is recitative, introducing a dependent statement, expressing a wish, so Zerwick #415, as NIV; "But let the scriptures be fulfilled", ESV, NRSV, .....
afenteV aor. part. "deserted" - [and] having abandoned, left [him, all = everyone fled]. Usually treated as an attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the main verb "to flee", as NIV; "they all left him and fled", ESV. Moffatt's approach is more technical, treating it as adverbial, temporal; "then they left him and fled." Decker always approaches seemingly attendant participles with a similar precision. He makes the point that two separate actions are necessary to properly identify a participle as attendant on a verb, but he does note, certainly with afihmi, that the rule does not always apply in Koine Gk. Probably the issue is overly technical, but as a rule of thumb, where precision is required, simply follow Moffatt's translation of a participle.
iv] The flight of the young man, v51-52. Mark adds a rather strange account of a young man who has arrived on the scene and now follows the arresting party. The officers attempt to take hold of him, but he escapes, leaving his sindwn, "a length of fine linen cloth", behind. This would normally be draped around a citwn, "tunic", but he is not wearing a tunic, and so runs away naked.
Mark's purpose in recording this event is illusive. It is possible that the young man is Mark and that this is Mark's way of saying "I was there." Yet, there is not even a hint in the pericope to suggest that the young man is the author of gospel, or that he is Mark. It is though, "a reasonable guess that the young man was someone who might be known to Mark's readers and could corroborate the story of his undignified escape through the olive groves", France. Gundry argues that Mark uses the story to preempt the resurrection of Jesus. Jesus is wrapped in a sindwn and he will leave his garment behind. At least the incident of the young sympathiser's flight highlights the paltry efforts of the disciples to stand with their master at his time of need.
peribeblhmenoV (periballw) perf. mid. part. "wearing" - [and a certain young man] having been wrapped around with, clothed with [a linen cloth upon his naked body]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "young man"; "who wore nothing but a sindwn / linen wrap."
autw/ dat. pro. "Jesus" - [was following] him [and they took hold of him]. Dative of direct object after the sun prefix verb "to follow along with."
oJ de "-" - but/and he. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative, a move from being seized to escaping, minus his sindwn.
gumnoV adj. "naked" - [he fled] naked, lightly clothed. The phrase epi gumnou, "upon his naked body", v51, an "odd expression" says Cranfield, is missing in some texts. If the phrase is not read, then gumnoV here would mean "lightly clad, without an outer garment", BDAG, ie., the young man was left wearing only his citwn, "tunic", his undergarment.
katalipwn (kataleipw) aor. part. "leaving" - having left behind [the linen cloth]. The participle is adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of his flight; "but he, letting the linen cloth go, fled away naked", Cassirer.