The Glory of Messiah, 13:1-20:31

The Farewell Discourse, 13:1-17:26

xi] Perplexity and joy


The farewell discourse continues with Jesus speaking to the disciples of their coming sorrow, a sorrow that will soon turn to joy. Through the death and resurrection of the Jesus, and the coming of the Spirit, the disciples will experience a new communion with God the Father.


Through faith in Christ a believer experiences the joy of a personal relationship with God the Father, particularly as it relates to prayer.


i] Context: See 13:1-17.


ii] Structure: Perplexity and joy:

The cross and the return of Christ, v16-22;

"You will grieve, but your grief will turn to joy."

Between the cross and the return of Christ, v23-28;

"My Father will give you whatever you ask in my name."

Conclusion, v29-33;

"Take heart! I have overcome the world."


iii] Interpretation:

The idea that Jesus is going to the Father where the disciples are no longer able to see him, v10, and from where he will send the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, leaves them somewhat saddened, if not confused. In v16 Jesus repeats the fact that "in a little while" the disciples will no longer see him, but then he goes on to reinforce the fact that in a little while they will see him; in that day their "grief will turn to joy", v20. Again, ambiguous language is used to describe this moment of mourning, a time when the world will rejoice, followed by a moment when grief will turn to joy. It is like child-bearing; pain and anguish is followed by the joy "that a child is born into the world." The language describes both Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection, a moment of grief followed by a sorrow-forgetting event. Yet, the ambiguity of the language forces the reader to look beyond the vision of a risen Lord to that of a coming Lord. We are forced to look beyond the "grief / anxiety" presently experienced in our corrupt world, a world that rejoices in the cross, to an eschatological vision, to a "joy" that is eternal through the victory of Christ.

In v23-28 Jesus goes on to explain something of this time of "anxiety" when believers await the coming Christ, waiting for the day when they might see him face-to-face. Jesus has already made the point that on returning to the Father he will send the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, to minister to his disciples on earth. So, this is a time when believers have open access to the Father through the Spirit, a time when it is possible to personally relate to the Father in prayer. During this time believers, under Jesus' authority, may directly seek God's will, along with the attainment of that will. This then is our moment, the moment between Jesus' going and coming.

In the concluding verses, v29-33, John records the disciples' confidence in their understand of Jesus' paroimian, "parables / figures of speech", and their ability to affirm their faith in him, but Jesus reveals how inadequate their faith is by telling them that very soon they will scatter and leave him alone. Of course, Jesus is never alone because the Father is always with him. When it comes to the grief of an absent Christ, we do well to remember that we are not abandoned; Jesus has won the victory, he has conquered the world.

Text - 16:16

Perplexity and Joy, v16-33: i] The cross and the return of Christ, v16-22. a) "A little while you will see me no more, and then after a little while you will see me", v16-19. John continues to relate Jesus' farewell discourse with the use of ambiguous language. The disciples will no longer see Jesus, but then, in a little while, they will see him. The disciples are confused, as is the reader. In its historical context, the reference is to Jesus' death and resurrection, his dying and coming back to life - the disciples see him no more, but then they will see him again when he rises from the dead. Yet, the intentional ambiguity of the words prompts the reader to think also of Jesus coming at the parousia, his second coming. "You will see me" can apply to both events. Some commentators include the coming of the Holy Spirit and so argue for three seeings / comings, so Bruce, Fenton, etc., while others for just "Jesus' departure in death and his return after his resurrection", Carson, so Ridderbos, Lindars, ... It seems likely that John has two seeings / comings in mind, Jesus' coming alive, the resurrection, and Jesus' coming again, the parousia, between which comings the Paraclete ministers to God's people in their luph, "anxiety".

mikron adj. "Jesus went on to say, 'In a little while'" - a little [and no longer you see me]. The adjective serves as an adverb of time, "in a short time, in a little while", modifying the present tense verb "to see" (best treated as futurisitic, "you will see"), "In a little while you will see me." The verb is further modified by a second adverb of time, ouketi, "no longer", reinforcing negative aspect, "and no further"; "in a day or so you're not going to see me", Peterson.

palin adv. "[and] then" - [and] again [a little and you will see me]. Sequential adverb expressing repetition; "but then in another day or so you will see me", Peterson.

oyesqe (oJraw) fut. "You will see [me]" - Barrett gives weight to the use of the future to express a seeing of the resurrection and the parousia of Jesus and "the period between them."


Harris suggests that the confusion of the disciples relates to two issues; "Why go away at all, if you will soon return?", and "How long or short is a little while?" Added to this is a further confusion, namely, how Jesus' going to the Father relates to his going and coming. This confusion prompts the disciples' exclamation "We have no idea what he's talking about!" v18.

oun "at this" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection, "so".

ek + gen. "[some] of [his disciples" - [some] from [the disciples of him said toward one another]. The preposition stands in the place of a partitive genitive; the nominative subject"some" is assumed.

hJmin dat. pro. "-" - [what is this he says] to us. Dative of indirect object.

oJti "because" - because [i go to the father]. The NIV, ESV, ... take the conjunction as introducing a causal clause, so Brown, although explaining what? Cf., v10 where this causal clause explains why the Paraclete convicts the world of its flawed righteousness, namely because Jesus is going to the Father and will send the Spirit to fulfill / complete his (Jesus') ministry. That surely is not the sense here, so possibly oJti is recitative, serving to introduce a dependent statement of direct speech expressing what Jesus says, namely that "I am going to the Father", so Ridderbos. "What does he mean when he says that he is going away to the Father?" Barclay. Yet, it seems more likely that oJti introduces an epexegetic clause serving as a parenthetical note by John explaining the key to understanding the not seeing, and then the seeing Jesus, so Fenton. If this is the case then the not seeing Jesus is related to his glorification, his lifting up (cross, resurrection, ascension, and enthronement), ie., his going to the Father. As for the seeing Jesus, although resting on the seeing Jesus on the day of resurrection, it pushes out to the parousia when we see Jesus coming, an event which similarly rests on Jesus going to the Father. The coming of the Paraclete during the intervening time of "grief / anxiety" to support the community of believers is also dependent on Jesus going to the Father.


oun "-" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection, "So they were saying", ESV.

elegon (legw) imperf. "they kept asking" - they were saying [what is this which he says the little. we do not know what he says]. The imperfect may serve to express iterative action, as NIV. The "what he says?" = "what he is talking about?", NRSV.


Jesus observed that the disciples "were wanting" to ask the meaning of "see" and "not see" "but were now reluctant to do so, perhaps because of his partially embarrassing answers to recent questions", Harris.

oJti "[Jesus saw] that" - [jesus knew] that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what Jesus knew, namely that they wanted to ask him about the not seeing and seeing.

erwtan (erwtaw) pres. inf. "[they wanted] to ask" - [they were wanting] to ask [him]. Complementary infinitive completing the sense of the verb "to want, will."

kai "so" - and. Here with an inferential sense, "and so ...."

autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - [he said] to them. Dative of indirect object.

peri + gen. "-" - about [this you seek = inquire]. Expressing reference / respect; "with respect to."

met (meta) "-" - with [one another]. Expressing accompaniment / association.

oJti "-" - that [i said, a little and you do not see me and again a little and you will see me]. Here epexegetic, specifying the content of toutou, "this"; "about this do you inquire with one another, namely that I said ........." "Are you discussing what I meant by saying, 'A little while and you do not behold me, and again ......", Rieu.


b) "First you will be sad, but then you will be glad", TH. With an emphatic saying, Jesus describes the time of seeing, and not seeing, as a time of "grief / anxiety", and a time of "joy". Barrett argues that the verb klaiw, "to weep", is used only of death in this gospel, so also Luke, indicating that Jesus is explaining the not seeing and the seeing in terms of his death and resurrection. Yet, Jesus' plain-speaking is still ambiguous, so forcing the reader to understand that the "grief / anxiety" is applicable, not just to the disciples as they face the cross, but also to the reader facing the daily trauma of a world that "rejoices" in the crucifixion of Christ, a world where Satan has his way. As the "grief" of the disciples was short lived, so also for the reader. Jesus was victorious on the cross and his coming is assured; eschatological "joy" is inevitable. In the meantime, the Paraclete, the HolySpirit will support us day-by-day, v23-28.

amhn amhn legw uJmin "Very truly I tell you" - truly truly i say to you. For these sayings / pronouncements, see 5:24.

oJti "-" - that. Introducing an object clause / dependent saying of indirect speech expressing what Jesus is telling his disciples.

uJmeiV pro. "you [will weep]" - you [you will weep, lament and you will mourn, grieve]. As with "you [you will be grieved]", this pronoun is emphatic by use. Both "weeping" and "mourning" are words used to describe the behavior of women relatives on the occasion of a death in the family.

de "while [the world rejoices]" - but/and [the world will rejoice]. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative to a contrasting point; "but the world will rejoice", ESV. Again John uses the word kosmoV, "world", for unbelieving humanity, both Jew and Gentile alike. If John is referring to Jesus' own countrymen he tends to us the word "the Jews".

all (alla) "but [your grief will turn]" - [you you will be grieved] but [the grief of you will become]. Strong adversative.

eiV + acc. "to [joy]" - into [joy]. Here eiV + acc. is used for a predicate nominative; See Zerwick #32.


God is well able to turn mourning into gladness and offer comfort and joy instead of sorrow. To illustrate this experience Jesus uses childbirth, "all anguish is forgotten out of the joy that a new baby has been born", Kostenberger.

oJti "because" - [the woman, when she gives birth, has grief] because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the woman "has grief, sorrow" = "has pain." Generic use of the article with "woman", so "a woman." The word "grief, sadness" is chosen to align the woman's experience with the disciples experience, but of course, her real experience is a mixture of "anxiety and pain". "When a woman gives birth to a child, she certainly knows pain when her time comes", Phillips.

authV gen. pro. "her [time has come]" - [the hour] of her [is come]. The genitive is adjectival, limiting hour, either possessive, or idiomatic / purpose, "the time for her to give birth has come."

de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative to a contrastive point, as NIV.

oJtan + subj. "when [her baby is born]" - when [she may give birth to the child]. This construction introduces a temporal clause indefinite time.

thV qliyewV (iV ewV) gen. "[she forgets] the anguish" - [she no longer remembers] the tribulation, trouble. Genitive of direct object after the verb "to think about again = remember."

dia + acc. "because of [her joy]" - because of [the joy]. Introducing a causal clause, as NIV. "Because she is happy that a baby has been born into the world", TEV.

oJti "that" - that [a man was born into the world]. Introducing an epexegetic clause specifying "the joy", as NIV.


John continues his record of Jesus' ambiguous plain-speaking so allowing the reader to understand that "grief / anxiety" is both applicable to the disciples as they face the cross, and applicable to believers as they face the trauma of daily life in Satan's domain, v1-4. Either way, "grief" is short-lived and "joy" inevitable, both in Jesus' coming alive, and his coming again.

oun "So with [you]" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection.

kai "-" - and [you you have grief / anxiety]. Here probably adjunctive, "also" = "in the same way", NAB, so Barrett; "So also you have sorrow now", ESV. Note uJmeiV, "you", is emphatic by use and position.

men ........ de "........., but" - but/and on the other hand [i will see you again and the heart of you will rejoice]. Transitional, standing in an adversative comparative construction; "on the one hand, you also have grief / anxiety, but on the other ......" "Now you are sad, but I will see you again and your hearts will be filled with gladness", TEV.

uJmw gen. pro. "your [joy]" - [and the joy] of you. The genitive is adjectival, limiting "joy", possessive, or subjective / idiomatic, "the joy which you experience."

af (apo) + gen. "-" - [no one takes it] from [you]. Expressing separation, "away from."


ii] Between the cross and the return of Christ, v23-28. The time signature en ekeinh/ th/ hJmera/, "in that day", is illusive. It probably does not refer to the actual resurrection of Jesus (contra Kostenberger, ....), nor Jesus' eschatological coming in the last day, but rather the period between, a period of "anxiety" when the Paraclete ministers to Christ's flock - "a new dispensation characterized above all by the fact that 'you will no longer ask anything of me'", Ridderbos. So, these words apply, not just to Jesus' immediate disciples, but to all believers throughout the ages. In this new age, through the Spirit, a believer will relate directly with God the Father, under the authority of Jesus ("in my name"). This will entail erwtaw, "asking questions", regarding the will of God, and aitew, "asking for things", namely, the realization of that will iJna, "so that" (hypothetical result) their eschatological joy might be realized, "fulfilled / made complete" (the asking has an intention beyond our own personal needs and desires). The full realization of the covenant blessings are ours for the asking because we have loved Jesus, we have put our trust in him, believed that he is God's promised messiah. Bound in the Father's love our joy will be complete.

en + dat. "in [that day]" - [and] on [that day]. Temporal use of the preposition. This temporal phrase, often expressed as "those days", usually refers the days related to the end of the age, cf., Barrett. From the perspective of John's realized eschatology, the era between Jesus' coming alive and Jesus' coming again is the end of the age; see above.

ouk erwthsete (erwtaw) fut. "you will no longer ask [me anything]" - you will not ask [me anything]. Is the sense, "ask me for anything", or "ask me no more questions", so Ridderbos, JB, NAB, Moffatt, Phillips? The verb erwtaw, primarily means "to ask a question", but then later in the verse the verb aitew is used, meaning "to ask for something." The intention behind the use of these two verbs remains unclear. Asking questions for information and asking for things, namely the realization of God's will, may both be intended, but then erwtaw is sometimes used of requesting something, so maybe no difference in meaning is intended. Either way, the important point being made is that a disciple now has open access to the Father (through the Spirit). Given their participation in the new age of the Spirit, the disciples now have the authority to ask the Father directly for the completion of their promised joy, v24.

amhn amhn legw uJmin "very truly I tell you" - truly truly i say to you. Serving to introduce an important saying of Jesus; See 5:24.

uJmin dat. pro. "[will give] you" - to you. Dative of indirect object.

an ti (ean ti) + subj. "whatever" - if a certain = whatever, as the case may be, [you ask the father in the name of me then he will give to you]. Introducing a 3rd class relative conditional clause where the proposed condition has the possibility of coming true. The indefinite "whatever you ask" can be misleading. Such statements are not open ended. The request is made on the basis of Jesus' bestowed authority ("in my name") which authority relates to Jesus' promises and commands to the community of believers. The request is also made to facilitate the completion of God's eschatological "joy" for his renewed humanity (v24), not the joy of finding a parking spot at the local supermarket.

en + dat. "in [my name]" - Instrumental, expressing means; "by means of the authority possessed by my name = person" / basis, "on the ground of the authority that Jesus possesses in his person." This prepositional construction is found in two places in the manuscript tradition; either with the verb "to give", or with the verb "to ask". The more difficult reading is its placement after dwsei uJmin, "I will give to you":

After dwsei uJmin: "whatever you ask the Father then he will give it in my name"; a request made to the Father will be granted on the ground of a disciple's association with Jesus' person; "Whatever you ask the Father for he will give you as my followers", Goodspeed.

Before dwsei uJmin: "whatever you ask the Father in my name then he will give it"; a request made to the Father on the ground of Jesus' person and authority will be granted", so Ridderbos, Barclay, NEB, TEV, ...., as NIV.


"Their joy will not be that of self-sufficiency, but will consist in their complete dependence on God, expressed in petition", Fenton.

eJwV arti "until now" - until now [you did not ask anything in the name of me]. Temporal construction, time up to; "up until now."

aiteite (aitew) pres. "ask [and you will receive]" - The aspect of the present tense is durative, Harris suggests iterative, "make a habit of asking." See "whatever" above as to the subject of the request.

iJna + subj. "and [your joy]" - that [the joy of you]. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose, or more likely hypothetical result; "so that ...."

peplhrwmenh (plhrow) perf. mid. / pas. part. "[will be] complete" - [may be] having been fulfilled, completed. The perfect participle with the present subjunctive of the verb to be produces a periphrastic perfect construction which probably emphasizes aspect - a complete realization of the promised covenant blessing of eschatological joy.


The time for "veiled speech", Barrett, has ended; now the truth will be revealed "plainly". "This does not refer to further teaching to be given in similar fashion in the course of the post-resurrection appearances, but to the direct knowledge which will result from the mutual indwlling which will then be established", Lindars.

tauta "-" - [i have spoken] these things [to you]. Accusative direct object of the verb to speak. It is unclear what "these things" are. They may include the whole of the Farewell Discourse, even "his earthly life", Lindars, or just v16-24.

en + dat. "[figuratively]" - in [parables]. The preposition is used here adverbially, expressing manner; "in a parabolic way." The noun paroimia is used to indicate the manner of Jesus' speech. Certainly in the passage before us Jesus' language has been illusive, ambiguous, obscure, obtuse, ....., and this because his words apply not just to the disciples and their immediate circumstance, but to believers throughout the ages. Jesus has used some figurative illustrations / parables, even the foot-washing itself is parabolic, but paroimia probably represents Jesus ambiguous language used in this passage and at times elsewhere in the Farewell Discourse. "I have spoken to you in the language of metaphor", Rieu.

oJte "[a time is coming] when" - [an hour comes] when [i will speak to you no longer in parables]. Temporal conjunction serving to introduce a temporal clause. The phrase "no longer in parables / veiled speech" = "plainly". Presumably Jesus is referring to the ministry of the Paraclete / Holy Spirit to the Christian community, rather than what Jesus might say to the disciples immediately after his resurrection.

alla "but" - but [plainly]. Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction; "not .... but ....."

peri + gen. "about [my Father]" - about [the father i will tell to you]. Expressing reference / respect.


The last era of human history, the last days, "ushered in by the resurrection of Jesus, will be characterized by a new understanding of his revelation and by a new freedom and effectiveness in prayer (v23-24)...... the emphasis in this passage (v26-27) is on the freedom of access which the disciples will have to the Father", Beasley Murray.

en + dat. "in [that day]" - on [that day you will ask in the name of me]. Instrumental, means / basis; See v23.

uJmin dat. pro. "-" - [and i do not say] to you. Dative of indirect object. "When that time comes you will make your petitions directly to God Father in my name without me speaking on your behalf."

oJti "that" - that [i will ask the father]. Introducing an object clause, dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what Jesus will not say.

peri + gen. "on [your] behalf" - about [you]. Usually taken here in the place of uJper to express advantage / representation, "on behalf of, for", as NIV.


"In that day", these last days, there is no need for Jesus to intercede for believers, ie., believers now have unfettered access to the Father to intercede ("ask in my name") on their own behalf, v26. The reason for this access is that they are loved by the Father because they love / believe in Jesus, v27.

gar "no" - for [the father]. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the disciples have freedom of access to the Father, namely because of the Father's love prompted by their faith in Jesus.

autoV pro. "himself" - he = himself [loves you]. Serving as a reflective pronoun; "of his own accord", Barrett.

oJti "because" - because [you have loved me and believed]. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the Father loves Jesus' disciples.

oJti "that" - Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what the disciples believed.

para + gen. "from [God]" - [i came from] from beside [god]. Expressing source / origin, "from beside"; "from God's presence", Harris. In typical form the preposition repeats the sense of the prepositional prefix ek, "from", of exhlqon.


This verse rounds off the discourse so far, a discourse which began by referring to the one whose hour had come to depart the world and go the Father, 13:1a. In between Jesus' coming from the Father and entering the world, and leaving the world and going back to the Father, is his "having loved his own in the world", a love that was "to the end", 13:1b. So, in between Jesus' coming and going we have learned that the unity of love that has always existed between the Father and Son was never ever broken by his coming, and we have also learned that the unity of love that exists between Jesus and his disciples / those who put there trust in him, is not in any way broken by his going, and this because of the ministry of the Paraclete, the Spirit of Christ.

elhluqa (ercomai) perf. "entered [the world]" - [i came from beside the father and] i have come [into the world, again i leave the world and go to the father]. The perfect tense "I have come", as with the aorist "I came", is past referencing, although the perfect probably expresses duration, coming and staying. Both the "leaving" and "going to" are present tense and are probably more reflective of present action than aspect.


iii] Conclusion; "take heart! I have overcome the world", v29-33. In a classic example of Johannine irony, the disciples think they now understand what Jesus is saying, which of course they don't, and so express their firm faith in Jesus based on their assumed new understanding, which faith has little going for it, as Jesus will point out. At least, in the days ahead, they will remember that they were warned of their breach of trust and maybe then they will believe that Jesus "has overcome the world." May we learn the same lesson!

nun "now" - [the disciples of him say, behold] now. Temporal adverb, emphatic by position; "at last."

en+ dat. "[you are speaking] clearly" - [you speak] in [boldness = plainness]. The preposition is adverbial, expressing manner, "in plainness" = "plainly". The disciples' claim that they now understand what Jesus says, but given that v25 tells us that plain-speaking is for the time that is coming (the era of the Paraclete), we can only conclude that they are deluded, or at least that John is being ironic.

paroimian (a) "[without] figures of speech" - [no longer do you speak] parables. Accusative direct object of the verb "to say." For "parables" see v25, "in parables" = "figuratively", "metaphorically."


If, as seems likely, that John's record of the disciple's response is ironic, then a faith based on the belief that Jesus possesses perfect knowledge is a faith based on the miraculous, and is therefore flawed. The reference to gnwsiV, "knowledge", is possibly alluding to gnostic thinking. It would not be unreasonable for John to draw on secular shibboleths of the time to explain the human condition. Anyway, their faith is about as useful as that of Nathanael who claimed he believed in Jesus' messianic credentials because Jesus had seen him under a fig tree - Really! Of course, John's description of the disciples' response may not be ironic, but rather genuine; "they conclude, despite all their earlier questions, they do not doubt ("we believe") the he has come from God", Ridderbos.

nun adv. "now [we can see]" - now [we know]. Temporal adverb, emphatic by position; "We know now ...."

oJti "that" - that [you know all things]. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what the disciples think they know.

iJna "[and] that" - [and you have no need] that [anyone ask = question you]. Here introducing an epexegetic clause specifying the noun "need". Here again the verb erwtaw means "to ask a question" - ask information from someone, question them. Some commentators suggest that the response of the disciples implies that Jesus knows the information a disciple needs and will reveal it without asking, so they have no need to ask, cf., v19, so Barrett, .... Yet, it is not the disciples who have "no need", but Jesus. Jesus does not need anyone to question him, in the sense of test his knowledge, because he knows everything "that pertains to judgment and salvation and the kingdom", Beasley-Murray.

en + dat. "[this makes us believe]" - in [this we believe]. Instrumental, expressing means, "by means of this information", or cause, "because of this information."

oJti "that" - that [you came out from god]. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what the disciples believe. Harris generously describes their statement as "an impetuous reaction that would prove to be overconfident."


arti adv. "[do you] now [believe]?" - now [do you believe]? Temporal adverb, expressing present time. Possibly as a statement; "At this present moment you think you believe. But look out! An hour is coming ......"

autoiV "-" - [jesus replied] to them. Dative of indirect object.


"Strike the shepherd, that the sheep may be scattered", Zech.13:7, is reflected in Jesus' prediction of the faithless response of the disciples soon to be played out in Jerusalem, cf., Matt.26:31, Mk.14:27. Yet, Jesus is not deserted by everyone; the Father, the faithful one, is always with him, 8:29.

idou "-" - behold. An interjection which is somewhat adversative in the context, "but look out!"; "But indeed a time is coming, and has come when you will scatter, each to his own home, and leave me alone", Rieu.

kai "and in fact [has come]" - [an hour is coming] and [has come]. This coordinative conjunction is possibly emphatic here, as NIV; "the hour is coming, indeed has come", ESV ("has now come" is found in some manuscripts).

iJna + subj. "when [you will be scattered]" - that [each one are scattered]. Here introducing an epexegetic clause specifying the "hour", namely, the "hour ... that you are scattered." Usually expressed as a temporal clause, as NIV; "the hour is coming ("the time is coming", TEV) ..... when you are all to be scattered", NEB.

eiV + acc. "to [your own home]" - into [the own = one's own]. Expressing movement toward / arrival at. "Each will go his own way", NAB - to hid out somewhere in or around Jerusalem.

monon "all alone" - [and you will leave me] alone. This adjective serves as the accusative complement of the direct object "me" standing in a double accusative construction. The crasis kame, kai + me = "and me" = "and me alone you will leave" = "and I will be left all alone", TEV.

kai "yet" - and [i am not alone]. The coordinating conjunction here is somewhat adversative, as NIV; "but no, I am not alone."

oJti "for" - because [the = my father]. Introducing a causal clause explaining why Jesus is not alone.

met (meta) + gen. "with [me]" - [is] always with [me]. Expressing association / accompaniment.


Of course, if God the Father shows himself faithful through and through when Jesus finds himself in a state of dereliction, then we may rightly expect the Father's faithfulness to extend to Jesus' friends when similarly faced with qliyin, "tribulation" (pres. = "have tribulation" = the eschatological birth-pangs of the last day / NOW). In and through Jesus we have eirhnhn, "pace" = a realization of the promised blessings of the covenant / well-being. We may rest secure in these facts because Jesus, has already in principle nenikhka, "conquered / overcome", the condition of loss that humanity now finds itself in. The victory of the cross completes Jesus' redemptive work, giving assurance to the community of believers into the future.

iJna + subj. "so that" - [i have spoken these things to you] that. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that ...."

en + dat. "in [me]" - in [me you may have peace]. Local, state / incorporative union; "so that united to be ...." Note the contrast, "in" Jesus we have "peace", "in" the world we have "affliction".

en + dat. "in [this world]" - in [the world you have affliction]. Local, space, "living in this world ..."

alla "but [take heart]" - but [be confident, courageous]. Strong adversative.

egw pro. "I" - i [i have conquered, overcome the world]. Emphatic by use.


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