The glory of the Messiah, 13:1-20:31
1. The farewell discourses, 13:1-17:26
vi] The Holy Spirit will teach you everythingSynopsis
John continues his record of the farewell discourse covering chapters 13:1-17:26. In this passage Jesus promises his disciples that both he and the Father will make their dwelling with the person who keeps his word / believes. This bare truth must suffice his disciples for the present, but the coming Holy Spirit will complete this teaching by reminding them of all that Jesus taught (a promise realized for us in the transcribed record of the New Testament). Jesus gives his disciples a parting gift / blessing; he bequeaths them (and all who keep his word / believe) his peace, "that perfect inward serenity which comes from reconciliation with God", Hunter.
The gift of the Spirit facilitates God's indwelling presence through faith in Christ
i] Context: See 13:1-17.
ii] Structure: The Holy Spirit will teach you everything:
Discourse proposition, v22-24;
God's indwelling presence is ours through faith in Christ;
Judas' question, v22;
God's presence is for those who believe, v23-24;
Discourse summary, v25-31;
The role of the Paraclete, v25-26;
"The Holy Spirit ... will teach you all things."
The going and coming of Jesus, v27-29;
"I am going away and I am coming back to you."
The hour has come for Satan to have his way, v30-31.
"The prince of this world .... has no hold over me."
So far, Jesus has made the point that he is going to the Father, a going which enables the coming of the Holy Spirit, both to manifest Jesus again to his disciples and teach them all things. In 14:15-17 Jesus tells his disciples that he will seek from the Father the gift of a Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth, who will give the disciples divine knowledge. Unlike the ministry of Jesus, the Spirit's ministry will be permanent and will serve to unify the Christian fellowship. On their part, believers must respond in obedience, cf. v15 (faith??? See notes 14:15-21). Jesus' going will not leave his disciples as orphans for he is coming back as the Spirit of Christ. Then the disciples will see and know. In the meantime, his disciples must keep his commandments ("believe in God, believe also in me") to receive in full the love of the Father and the Son.
At this point the other Judas joins the discussion with a question. His question implies that Jesus should manifest himself, not just to the disciples, but to the world, v22. Jesus ignores the suggestion and repeats the point he is making, namely that a person who loves him / obeys / keeps his word (believes in him) will receive the abiding presence of the Godhead in their being, ie., God will manifest himself to them, v23. This gift of God's divine presence is not for the unloving, unbelieving person, v24. The disciples, having received the Holy Spirit, will be taught by him ("everything" = the apostolic interpretation of the teachings of Jesus as found in the epistles) and reminded of all that Jesus taught them (the apostolic tradition recorded in the gospels), v25-26.
Jesus must soon leave his disciples and so he bequeaths his peace to them, that gift of unity / fellowship / friendship which exists between the Father and the Son. For Jesus, this is about to be fully realized in his return to the Father, a fact that should fill the disciples with joy. His going (death, resurrection, ascension and enthronement) and coming again (the coming of the Spirit??) will confirm Jesus' words and his disciples' faith, v27-29. For now, Satan, the de facto ruler of this world, is about to have his way, but his plans do not undermine the divine plan; it is God's will that lost humanity should know / experience His eternal love in Christ, v30-31.
iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.
Text - 14:22
Discourse conclusion, v22-31: i] Discourse proposition; God's indwelling presence is ours through faith in Christ, v22-24. The following verses serve to conclude the first Farewell Discourse. The discourse shifts from what has been a detailed theological instruction to a more personal word applicable to the difficulties that the disciples will soon face in the passion of Jesus. The other Judas sets the tone by asking why all humanity should not experience God's love, v22.
IoudaV "Judas" - judas. Nominative subject of the verb "to say." As John notes, "not Iscariot", so possibly either the brother of James of Jerusalem and therefore, a brother/relative of Jesus, or the son of James who is listed as an apostle in Luke's list, 6:16.
autw/ dat. pro. "[said]" - [says] to him [not iscariot]. Dative of indirect object.
ti pro. "why" - [lord and] what, why. Interrogative pronoun. The question may be "why", but also possibly "how"? Judas is referring to Jesus' promise to "manifest" himself, often understood as a reference to his resurrection, so Kostenberger, etc., although in the context, surely Jesus is referring to the gift of the "Advocate" / Holy Spirit / Spirit of Jesus "who dwells with you and in you." Jesus does not leave his disciples "bereft", but rather, "I am coming back to you" (not just for a visit and off again!) "The world will see me no longer, but you will see me; because I live, you too will live: then you will know that I am in my Father and you in me and I in you", cf. v17-20. Either way, Judas is unsure how/why Jesus intends manifesting himself to the disciples, but not to the world; "why to us and not the world?"
gegonen (ginomai) perf. "-" - has become, occurred, happened. "How has it come about", Cassirer, possibly just "why is it", Moffatt, but given the context, the perfect "has become" is a mental process producing a reasoned conclusion; "what is behind your words", Rieu.
oJi "-" - that. Possibly causal, even consecutive but more likely epexegetic, specifying the "what"; "[how/why is it] that you are going to show yourself to us and not to the world?", Berkeley.
emfanizein (emfanizw) pres. inf. "[you intend] to show" - [you are about] to manifest, exhibit [yourself]. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "be about to".
hmin dat. pro. "to us" - Dative of indirect object.
tw/ kosmw/ (oV) dat. "[not] to the world" - Dative of indirect object.
The manifestation of the divine is only for "those who love me" - a personal relationship with the living God is only possible through faith in Christ, v23-24.
ean tis + subj. "anyone who" - [jesus answered and said to him] if, as may be the case, [anyone loves me then the word of me he will keep]. The NIV11 has dropped the "if" since in English it expresses doubt. Here introducing an indefinite relative conditional clause 3rd. class, future supposition, where the condition has the possibility of coming true; "if, as may be the case, ..... then....." John repeats this statement a number of times, v15, 21, 15:14. The strength of the condition (if a person loves Christ they will keep his word) implies an interrelationship between the two elements of the condition. This connection comes out fully in 1 John 5:3, "this is the love of God, to obey his commands." So, it is likely that loving Christ and keeping his word are one in the same. Doing one is doing the other, and visa versa.
ton logon (oV) "[will obey my] teaching" - [he will keep] the word [of me]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to keep." It is likely that "the word" is interchangeable with the taV entolaV, "the commandments" such that loving Christ, keeping his word and keeping his commandments amount to the same thing. Of course, numerous other interpretations prevail. The "word" may be taken collectively and include the Torah as well as Jesus' ethical teachings, ie., the whole law; "not simply an array of discrete ethical injunctions, but the entire revelation from the Father", Carson = "commandments". At the other extreme this "word / commands" may distill down to the command for brotherly love. Those who are in a loving relationship with Christ will respond in love toward a brother. Just as the adulterous woman loved much because she was forgiven much, so here, the person who is in a loving relationship with Christ, who experiences the mercy of God in Christ, will naturally respond in love toward the brotherhood. None-the-less, it is more than likely that Jesus' call to love / keep his word/commands is nothing more than the call to faith / belief in the proclamation of divine grace in Christ, cf. Bultmann. To believe / rest on the offer of divine grace in Christ / forgiveness, is to love Christ, is to keep his word / commands. "And this is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another", 1Jn.3:23 ("love" here being the fruit of faith). So simply, we enter into an eternal relationship with God (ie., when the divine makes his home with us) through faith in Christ.
eleusomeqa (ercomai) fut. "we will come" - [and the father of me will love him and] will come [to him]. Here Jesus answers Judas' question. The manifestation of the divine in the person of Jesus is revealed personally and intimately to those in a relationship with Christ through faith. It is realized in the coming of the divine into that person's life. By its very nature, such a manifestation cannot be perceived by "the world." The specific, as to who comes, has burdened the church for eons. The Western church, following Augustine, holds the view that there is a Trinitarian coming; the Father and the Son come in the Spirit. We should note that John doesn't quite say this. There is evidence of a distinction, at least in function, and possibly in timing, between the coming of the Father and the Son, and the coming of the Spirit. Whatever is said, the text is not anti trinitarian.
par (para) + dat. "[and make our home] with [him]" - [and we will make a dwelling-place] with [him]. Here expressing association; "with", as NIV. The sense of "make our home / place" is "dwell", Zerwick. "Dwell with" entails the "manifestation" of the divine = a personal relationship with God in Christ. Jesus' point is that only believers get to know God eternally as a personal friend.
Jesus answers Judas' question as it relates "to the world." The world / those who do not love, do not obey, do not believe Jesus, similarly do not love / obey / believe the Father, and so consequently the Father / Son / Spirit is not emfanizw, "revealed" to them.
oJ mh agapwn (agapaw) pres. part. "he who does not love" - the one not loving [me the words of me does not keep]. The participle serves as a substantive, nominative subject of the verb "to keep." It introduces a negative conditional clause - "the one who does not love, the my word does no keep." Note that it is now "words" plural (NIV "teaching"). So, has John changed the sense of "word" to "words" = Christ's ethical teachings? The trouble is he reverts to "word" again in the second half of the verse. Do we take the second use to mean "doctrine", "teaching"? All this is a bit tenuous. We are best to press on with the idea that those who do not believe in Christ do not love Christ, those who do not love Christ do not believe in Christ.
oJ logoV (oV) sing. "these words" - the words. Nominative subject of the verb to-be. This word of teaching, doctrine / this word of grace, see above, derives from the Father, ie. it is divine and not of human devising; it is authoritative.
emoV adj. "[are not] my own" - [and the word which you hear is not] mine. Predicate adjective.
alla "-" - but. Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction; "not ..... but ......"
tou ... patroV (hr roV) gen. "they belong to the Father" - of the father. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, as NIV, or idiomatic / subjective, "they come from the Father who sent me"; "it comes from the Father who sent me", Barclay.
pemyantoV (pempw) gen. "who sent [me]" - having sent [me]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Father", genitive in agreement with "Father", as NIV.
ii] Discourse summary, v25-31: a) The role of the Paraclete, v25-26: The Spirit of Christ, indwelling his people, will interpret Jesus' teachings.
tauta "all this" - [i have said] these things [to you]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to say." "These things I have spoken to you" is a resumptive phrase referring to the words of the preceding discourse.
menwn (menw) pres. part. "while still" - abiding, remaining, continuing. The participle is adverbial, temporal, as NIV. "While I am still remaining with you", Cassirer.
par (para) + dat. "with [you]" - beside [you]. Spacial, expressing association, "with you."
Lindars argues that "the whole verse is a parenthesis, referring once more to post-Resurrection conditions, and so breaks harshly into the natural progression of thought." So, we may have a second independent Paraclete passage (the second of five in the gospel), although tauta, "these things", of v25 may refer to the previous teaching on the Paraclete, which v26 summarizes; "these things I have said to you ...... (de) namely that ....." None-the-less, our information on the ministry of the Paraclete is expanded somewhat in this verse. The Paraclete, namely "the Holy Spirit", whom the Father sends at Jesus' behest ("in my name", see Carson), not only reminds the disciples of Jesus' teaching, but will interpret it as well. This process of interpretation is evident in this gospel in the way Johannine commentary and the memory of what Jesus' said is intertwined. Note how the apostle Paul, under the guidance of the Spirit, builds off Jesus' teachings.
de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the dialogue, possibly to a parenthesis.
oJ .. paraklhtoV (oV) masc. sing. "but the counselor" - the paraclete [the holy spirit]. Although "spirit" in Greek is neuter, it is important to note that John renders paraclete as masculine singular - he is a person, not a thing, not just a power. The word is a verbal adjective functioning as a noun, derived from "to call alongside" and therefore counsel, encourage, exhort. As a noun, there are a number of possible meanings: See "Counselor", cf. 14:16. "The Holy Spirit" stands in apposition to "Paraclete". "The Paraclete, who is the Holy Spirit, the one whom the Father sends ...."
en + dat. "in [my name]" - [which the father will send] in [the name of me]. Instrumental, expressing means. "The name" represents a person's character, person, being, and with the preposition often expresses the sphere of the person's authority, so "under / with / my authority", or particularly here a lighter "at my request." Barrett spells it out with "to act in relation to me, in my place, with my authority."
ekeinoV masc. pro. "-" - that one [will teach you all things]. Nominative subject of the verb "to teach." Much significance is drawn from the fact that John has this pronoun as masculine, so reinforcing the accepted view that "Spirit" is a person and not a thing. That the Holy Spirit is a person is beyond question, although the masculine here is simply correct grammar since its antecedent oJ paraklhtoV, the Paraclete", is masculine, and a "helping presence" does not necessarily have to be a person, even though it takes the masculine in Greek.
uJpomnhsei (uJpomimnhskw) fut. "will remind" - [and] will remind, cause to remember [all things which i said to you]. Most commentators, eg. Brown, Carson, Morris, Barrett, ..., take the view that the two functions "teach" and" remind" are synonymous. So, the teaching role of the Holy Spirit is underlined, but teaching only in the sense of reminding the apostles of the teachings of Jesus. Yet, surely an explaining / interpreting function is intended with the use of the word didaxei, "teaching." As noted above the interpretive expansion of Jesus' teachings are evident in this gospel and particularly in the epistles. Of course, it is right to argue that the promise of the Spirit's teaching role serves to authenticate the apostolic tradition and is not a promise of divine interpretation for all who study the scriptures.
ii] The going and coming of Jesus, v27-29. As Jesus concludes the discourse he offers the shalom greeting to his disciples, here as a farewell. The offer of peace, often associated with worship, is a formal way of recalling the security and bounty of the coming kingdom of God, and of wishing this on the person so greeted. In a piece of realized eschatology, Jesus bequeaths this reality to his disciples, and thus quells their troubled heart. It is interesting how the discourse covering this chapter started with the words "let not your hearts be troubled", v1, and so now Jesus returns to the theme in his offer of peace.
afihmi pres. "I leave" - [peace] i bequest. "Peace is my bequest to you", Cassirer.
uJmin dat. pro. "with you" - to you. Properly a dative of indirect object, as Cassirer above, although association / accompaniment is possible, as NIV.
thn "my [peace]" - [peace] the [mine i give to you]. The article serves as an adjectivizer, turning the possessive pronoun into an attributive modifier, "the peace which is mine." The kingdom is realized in Christ, so it is his peace.
uJmin dat. pro. "[I give] to you" - Dative of indirect object.
ou kaqwV "[not] as" - [not] like, as [the world gives you i give to you]. The comparative introduces a comparative clause. Harris suggests that, unlike the world, Jesus bestows his gifts freely; it is a gift of grace.
mh tarassesqw (tarassw) pas. imp. "do not let [your hearts] be troubled" - let not be troubled [the heart of you nor let it be fearful]. The thought is repeated in "do not be afraid", don't play the coward, for the kingdom has dawned in Christ and there is therefore, no need to fear. "Don't be upset; don't be distraught", Peterson.
The going and coming of Jesus is a dominant theme in the first farewell discourse and so Jesus summarizes its truth in this verse. In his lifting up, his glorification (cross, resurrection, ascension, and enthronement), Jesus is going to the Father. In and through the Holy Spirit Jesus is coming back to the disciples. The going is something to celebrate because it inaugurates the dawning of a new age, "a new dispensation of grace", Ridderbos, which is realized in the coming.
hkousate (akouw) aor. "you heard" - you heard. It is what the disciples heard, namely that Jesus is going away, that has filled them with fear.
oJti "-" - that [i said to you]. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what they heard; "you heard that I said to you I am going ...."
proV + acc. "[I am coming back] to [you]" - [i am going and i am coming] to, toward [you]. Of movement toward. As already noted in v3, and v18f, this return is obviously not Christ's parousia, but is possibly a reference to his resurrection (v18-20 serving to expound "the situation which will follow the Resurrection", Lindars), although better of the coming of the Holy Spirit / the Spirit of Christ / the Paraclete.
ei + imperf. ind. ..... a]n + aor. ind. "if" - if, as is not the case, [you were loving me, then you would have rejoiced]. Introducing a conditional clause 2nd. class, contrary-to-fact, so Carson and Morris, although Ridderbos argues that it is a causal clause, not conditional. Jesus' words obviously reflect a negative reaction, on the part of the disciples, to his imminent departure. Given that the eternal consequences are far better with Jesus' departure to the Father, the disciples should be happy for Jesus. "If you really loved me / believed in me, you would rejoice that I go to the Father."
oJti "that [I am going to the Father]" - that / because [i go to the father]. Possibly causal, "because", as AV, ESV, although most modern translations treat it as introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception, feeling, expressing what the disciples should be glad about.
oJti "for" - because. Here obviously expressing cause/reason; introducing a causal clause explaining why Jesus' surrendering of himself to the cross is not something to prompt fear, namely, "because" all is under the control of the Father.
mou gen. pro. "[the Father is greater than] I" - [the father is greater] of me. The genitive is ablative, of comparison. Jesus' submission to the Father (ie., his obedience to the Father, here expressed in the terms of the Father being greater than the son) does not make Jesus less than deity. Jesus functions as the obedient servant of the Father on our behalf, ie., the Son is only functionally subordinate to the Father. Note that this clause has prompted major theological arguments over the years leading to subordinationist christology, beginning with Arius through to the present day; as Calvin describes the heresy, "a semi-Christ and a mutilated Christ."
Jesus has reveled his going and coming to the disciples so that when it occurs they will "believe in the greater reality with which he will return", Ridderbos.
prin + inf. "before [it happens]" - [and now i have told you] before [it happens]. This conjunction with the infinitive forms a temporal clause, antecedent time, as NIV.
iJna + subj. "so that" - that. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that", or hypothetical result, "so that".
oJtan + subj. "when [it does happen]" - when [it happen]. Forming an indefinite temporal clause. "Before it all happens so that when it does happen you will believe" TEV.
pisteushte (pisteuw) aor. subj. "you will believe" - you may believe. It unclear what belief is intended. Jesus has revealed the future, his going and coming = his death followed by the coming of the Spirit of Christ. This revelation will soon be confirmed and thus their faith will be strengthened. Or is Jesus telling the disciples about the future so that when it occurs they will stand firm and not lose faith? "have faith" NEB.
iii] The hour has come for Satan to have his way, v30-31. Verse 30 is not obliquely referencing Judas, but rather Satan's confrontation with Jesus on the cross. The language is interesting, especially the use of the verb ercomai, "to come". Great ones come to do battle and here Satan comes to do battle with Jesus. There are many such comings, but they are not all from the dark side, some are from the light. Divine comings are fearful indeed. Satan's "coming" is also fearful because he is "the ruler of the world", a description that should give us a slight chill. This fact should make us wary of seeking guidance in the circumstances of life - the open or closed doors. One must always ask, who opened or closed the door?
gar "for" - [no longer many things i will speak with you] because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why little time remains for Jesus to speak with his disciples, namely, because Satan is about to have his way.
tou kosmou (oV) gen. "[the prince] of this world" - [the ruler] of the world [is coming]. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / of subordination; "the prince / ruler over the world."
en + dat. "[he has no hold] on [me]" - in [me he does not have anything] = [he has nothing] in, on [me]. This is a rather interesting piece of Aramaic idiom with the preposition en taking the sense "against" and verb ecw, "to have", taking the sense "be able", cf. Zerwick. So Jesus is saying that Satan "is not able to bring a claim against me." The idiom is forensic meaning "can bring no charge against." So, there is a sense where the climactic struggle that is about to occur between Christ and Satan at Golgotha, one in which Christ will be the victor, has legal overtones; "he (Satan) will find nothing", Origin. Satan is unable to make any claim/charge against Jesus and as a consequence, he can bring no charge against those who are in Christ, which fact further eliminates fear.
The Greek is somewhat difficult: "Satan can bring no charge against me (v30b), alla but rather, kaqwV as my Father commanded me ouJtwV so I do, (referring to what Jesus told the disciples about before it occurred so that they may believe, v29, ie., his going and coming) iJna (purpose clause) in order that the world may understand oJti (dependent statement of perception) that I love the Father." The verbal actions "I love the Father" and "I do" "as my Father commanded me" are equivalents such that Christ's love for the Father (the only ref. in NT where Jesus states the he loves the Father) and obedience to the Father refer to the same act, namely his confrontation with Satan on the cross.
alla "but" - [he has nothing on me] but [that the world may know that i love the father . Strong adversative in a counterpoint construction, "he has nothing ..... but as .... so I do ....." Satan has no hold over Jesus, but rather in his coming (his doing battle with Jesus on the cross) the world learns (gnw/, comes to know, understand) "that Jesus is vindicated in his death, and that the cross, resurrection and exaltation of Jesus Christ ultimately turn on the commitment of the Son to love and obey the heavenly Father at all cost", Carson.
kaqwV ..... ouJtwV "-" - [and] as [the father commanded me] so [i do]. Establishing a comparative construction where the characteristics of one element are compared with the other. "What the Father commands I do."
egeiresqe agwmen enteuqen "Come now; let us leave" - arise, let us go from here. It does seem that the discourse ends here, but is then extended by another two more chapters. Why would an editor retain this clause when adding to the discourse? Torrey suggests an Aramaic translation that reads "thus I do. I will arise and go hence", referring to Christ's act of obedience which will involve his leaving the disciples.