The culmination of Messiah's mission, 19:45-24:53

1. The Messiah and the Temple, 19:45-24:53

vi] Signs of the new age and the end times, 2. 21:25-38


Having spoken of the destruction of Jerusalem, the disciples ask Jesus "when will this be and what will be the sign that this is about to take place?" The question possibly takes the sense "what will be the sign when this will be?", but if "when", then "within this generation", and as for the "what", "Jerusalem surrounded by armies." Jesus goes on to outline the non-signs (preliminary signs?), dreadful portents and persecution, v9-19, and then identifies the sign that heralds the end, "Jerusalem surrounded by armies" and the tribulation associated with that time, v20-24.


Jesus warns his disciples of the coming terrible day of judgment and calls on them to be prepared - watch to your faith.


i] Context: See 19:45-20:18. The Signs of the New Age and the End Times is the sixth episode of Jesus' Temple Ministry in Jerusalem, 19:45-21:38. The passage before us, Your Liberation is Near, is the second part of this episode on the signs of the new age.


ii] Structure: This passage, Your liberation is near, presents as follows:

Setting, v5-6:

"not one stone will be left on another ...."

The disciples' question, v7:

"when will these things be, and what will be the sign .....?"

The signs of the age, v8-28:

Preliminary signs of the age, v8-19:

The desolating sacrilege, v20-24;

The shaking of the powers of heaven, v25-26;

The great assize, v27.

Saying, v28:

"when these things begin to take place .... your redemption is drawing near."

Parable, v29-31:

The parable of the fig tree;

Saying, v32-33:

"this generation will certainly not pass away until ......... my words will never pass away."

Saying / oracle, v34-35:

"that day will close on you suddenly like a trap ....."

Saying / exhortation, v36:

"be always on the watch, and pray that you may be able to escape ......"


iii] Interpretation:

The shaking of the heavens and the great assize, v25-28. These verses are usually regarded as if describing the cosmic events that lead up to Christ's second coming, although v32, "this generation will not pass away until all these things have happened", opposes such an interpretation. The "signs in the sun, the moon and the stars", the sign of the shaking of the powers, the sun being darkened etc., derives from Isa.13:10, Ezk.32:7, Jol.2:10-11. Although often treated literally, the words simply image God laying his hand upon the powers and authorities that control human affairs, both geopolitical and spiritual. This shaking is realized through the Spirit empowered Word of God, Isa.28:13. Consisting of a series of allusions to prophetic texts, Jesus gives an apocalyptic revelation depicting the Great Day of the Lord, the coming of the Lord in judgment. Jesus crucifixion is this day (note the cosmic signs associated with Jesus' death on the cross), as is the destruction of the temple / Jerusalem in 70AD, as is Christ's enthronement ("coming") at the right hand of the Ancient of Days to receive glory, honor and power to enact judgment.

Jesus' words address the now / not yet of the kingdom. The Biblical prophet always employs powerful imagery and their words always addresses their own generation as well as future generations. Biblical prophecy is layered. So, the destruction of Jerusalem serves as a paradigm for the judgment of the cross as well as the heavenly assize. The sign of Jerusalem set upon by surrounding armies, is a now/not yet sign. Fulfilment for Jesus' generation was but a taste of the future, of coming desolation, tribulation and glory, of earthly and cosmic strife and of the glorious revealing of the Son of Man in that awful and dreadful day.

the prophetic perspective

Of course, in our age, we would love to define, not just the events surrounding the last day, but the preparatory signs, yet the best we can say is that when the time comes, the "watchful" believer will easily read the signs. We are reminded of the Christians leaving Jerusalem around 68AD in the face of the advancing Roman armies. They were condemned for abandoning the revolution, but they had read the signs. The Jerusalem church was saved from that dreadful day and was reestablished in Pella, across the Jordan.


The coming of the Son of Man: Any attempt to break open this passage requires at least some understanding of what Jesus means by the "coming of the Son of Man." It is most likely that this "coming in a cloud" derives from Daniel 7:13. This "coming" is viewed from heaven, not earth, ie., Jesus' coming is to the Ancient of Days, to heaven, not to earth. What "the nations", "the powers of the heavens", witness is the Son of Man ascending, entering the heavenly throne-room and taking up his eternal reign. The "coming in a cloud", prophesied in Daniel 7:13, simply describes Jesus' ascension and glorification, his coming to heaven to reign over all powers and authorities, on earth and in heaven. Such, of course, primarily depicts judgment.

None-the-less, it is still appropriate to speak of Jesus "coming" to earth in the last day, a coming to judge all flesh, in fact, all acts of divine judgment can properly be termed as a "coming". The most significant of such comings being the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians and later, the Romans. Even the destruction of Sodom and Gemorah can be properly described as a "coming" of God, a coming in judgment. So, the day this world is consumed in fire is the day when the Lord comes in judgment.

The most difficult feature concerning Christ's coming is its alignment with earthly time. Although a touch schizophrenic, we are best to understand Christ's enthronement in heaven as outside of earthly time. Christ's enthronement, and thus our eternal reign with Christ, Eph.2:6, along with the subjection of all powers and authorities under Christ, is a now reality. In fact, the eyes of faith reveal Christ on the cross as Christ on the throne. Yet, what the thief on the cross experienced, namely his being with Christ "this evening", and what Stephen witnessed while he was being stoned, still lies in the future for us. The now of our being seated with Christ in the heavenlies is held in tension with the not-yet of our resurrection in the last day. Both are true.

So, the coming of the Son of Man to the Ancient of Days is a now reality which is imaged in comings that range back and forth in human history. We have witnessed the consequences of the enthronement of the Son of Man in human history, and we will witness it again in the future. For believers, Christ's coming, his enthronement, realizes the kingdom and our redemption.


iv] Synoptics:

See 21:25-38.


v] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 21:25

The Last Things, v5-36: ii] The signs of the age, v8-27; c) The shaking of the powers of heaven, v25-26. Jesus now uses apocalyptic language to describe an earth-shattering event, v25-26. As noted above, the actual event is in dispute, but given the disciples' question and the logical sequence of the events described, with the conclusion "this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened", then obviously the destruction of the temple/Jerusalem is the specific "coming of the Son of man" that Jesus has in mind. The verses are not exact quotations from the prophets, but certainly pick up on "the common stock of apocalyptic terminology used in Jewish writings both of political upheaval and of the end of the age, cf. Isa.13:10, 34:4, Ezk.32:7, Am.8:9, 4Ez.13:30ff", Ellis. The texts allude to a cataclysmic intervention of divine judgment against the unrighteous. Although the prophets commonly used this type of cosmic language when depicting judgement upon the enemies of Israel, Jesus now turns it onto Israel itself.

kai "-" - and. Possibly "then", identifying what follows the tribulation, namely the destruction of the temple.

epi + gen. "upon" - Spacial, as NIV.

thV ghV "the earth" - "The whole world."

eqnwn (oV) gen. "nations" - [anguish] of nations, Gentiles, peoples. The genitive is possibly verbal, objective, receiving the distress, or subjective, exhibiting the distress, or adjectival, attributed, "distressed Gentiles." "Among the heathen", Goodspeed, pushes in the right direction, since "nations" is a bit too specific. The word can describe geopolitical groupings, but also language groupings, tribes, and thus, broad human associations, so "all people will be in anguish." "And on the earth nations will not know where to turn", Barclay.

thV sunoch (h) "[will be in] anguish" - distress / tormented / trapped.

en + dat. "in [anguish and perplexity]" - in [perplexity, doubt, uncertainty]. Probably here adverbial, modal, expressing manner, or possibly attendant circumstance. "The nations on earth will be afraid of the roaring sea and tides, and they will not know what to do", CEV.

qalasshV kai salou gen. "[at the roaring] and tossing of the sea" - [sound, noise] of sea and surf. The genitive is probably ablative, source/origin, the sound that comes from the sea and surf. Allusion to Psalm 46:3. As noted above, Jesus' figurative language (at times, apocalyptic) serves to describe the shaking, undoing, of powers and authorities. The use of a sea image is particularly useful since the Jews had an abiding dread of the sea. "At the roar of the surging sea", Phillips.


Jesus' use of prophetic apocalyptic language to describe the destruction of the temple continues, cf. Isa.13:6-10, 34:4, Dan.8:10, Hag.21:21.

apoyucontwn (apoyucw) gen. pres. part. "will faint" - fainting, being discouraged, disheartened. Hapax legomenon, once only use in the NT. Literally, to stop breathing, "swooning", Moffatt. A genitive absolute, usually translated as a temporal clause, "while people will be fainting", Barclay.

apo + gen. "from [terror]" - from, by, since. Probably expressing cause, "because of."

fobou kai prosdokiaV (a) "terror, [apprehensive of what is coming]" - fear and expectation. The shaking will cause "panic and foreboding", Moffatt. Possibly a hendiadys where a single idea is being expressed in two words joined by kai, "and". "Fearful expectation", TH.

twn epercomenwn (epercomai) gen. pres. part. "of what is coming" - of the things coming upon. The participle functions as a substantive, with the genitive possibly verbal, objective, "about / concerning the things coming upon the world; "of what is happening", CEV.

th/ oikoumenh/ dat. "the world" - The dative is local; "in the whole inhabited world."

gar "for" - for, since, because. This explanatory conjunction can be handled by starting a new sentence to support the previous sentence, so CEV, or translated with a "for", "for you see, the heavenly powers will be shaken."

twn ouranwn (oV) gen. "the heavenly bodies" - [powers] of heaven. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, as NIV. The NIV understands "powers" as referring to the stars. The term may refer to earthly authorities or powers, or heavenly angelic powers, but cosmic bodies, planets, stars.., is more likely. None-the-less, for the ancients, the stars / planets of the night sky are, or are associated with, heavenly powers and authorities. "The powers of the heavens will be shaken", NRSV.

saleuqhsontai (saleuw) fut. pas. "will be shaken" - As noted above, the image of cosmic shaking, illustrates the shaking of all power and authority, in heaven and on earth. Specifically, these powers are shaken as the ascending ("coming") of Jesus passes through their domain and takes up rule over them. As noted above, this time it is the temple/Jerusalem that is shaken. "Will be violently shaken."


d) The coming of Christ and the great assize, v27. Jesus continues in apocalyptic mode, alluding to Daniel 7:13-14. The destruction of the national life of Israel, just described in the terms of a cosmic shaking, is consequent on the coming of the Son of Man. Jesus, as the mysterious Son of Man, comes to the Ancient of Days to receive authority and power such that all knees bow before him. The righteous reign of God, once evident in the national life of Israel, is now exercised in the corporate Son of Man, v27. The kingdom has come.

kai tote "at that time" - and then. Temporal, although the time signature is debatable, so as NIV, or "some time later." It is likely that the events are contemporaneous, as NIV.

oyontai (oJraw) fut. "they will see" - Who are the "they", the powers of heaven, or the nations? The verb is best viewed as an indefinite third person plural, so "people will see."

tou anqrwpou (oV) gen. "[the Son] of Man" - The genitive is adjectival, relational. Jesus' self designation for the messiah, the Daniel messiah who comes to the Ancient of Days to receive an eternal kingdom.

ercomenon (ercomai) pres. part. "coming" - The participle serves as an abject complement, complementing the direct object, "the Son of Man", of the verb "they will see." As noted above, Daniel makes it clear that the view of Christ's coming is from heaven, not earth. Jesus comes to heaven to reign. Of course, such a coming heralds the end times. It is this reality that gives urgency to the proclamation that "the kingdom of God is at hand." So, Christ's "coming" to heaven to reign is what "people / powers" witness in his act of judgment on the temple .

en + dat. "in [a cloud]" - in, with. Expressing space/sphere. Matthew has "on/upon the clouds of heaven"; note, "clouds" plural. Luke stays with the singular. Mark has "in clouds." Daniel has "with the clouds." "With" implies accompaniment, whereas "in" puts more stress on the one coming within the cloud. None-the-less, "in / with / on / upon" presents much the same image. The image of a cloud, of course, serves to remind us of the divine presence.

meta + gen. "with" - Either verbally attendant, or adverbial, modal, expressing manner. Possibly expressing association, "in company with"; Christ's "coming in a cloud is associated with much power and glory."

pollhV adj. "[power and] great [glory]" - much, many [power and glory]. This description of the coming of the Son of Man is expanded in 9:26 where we are told "he comes in his glory and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels." Unlike Luke, who uses the genitive "of the holy angels", Mark uses the preposition "with": the Son of Man "comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels." Should we read Luke's genitive as one of association? So, is "many / much" (rather than "great") of the "power and glory" referring to the glorious and powerful angelic army accompanying the Son of Man to his throne? If so, who makes up this massive crowd, who are these angels, or properly, these messengers of God? It is likely that we are this great crowd. The "many messengers" are the last-day resurrected believers, coming with Jesus to the Ancient of Days, gathering to witness Jesus ascend to his throne and reign in glory. Of course, there is a now/not yet time problem here, but there always is and always will be when we are dealing with a Time Lord who transcends time!


e) Saying, v28: Note the parallel verse in Mark 13:27 and Matthew 24:31. Nolland suggests Luke is drawing on his own original source, but none-the-less, Mark's words may well serve to exegete what Luke means by "your redemption is drawing near." Taking "angels" to mean "God's messengers", then the calling out and gathering of the elect is likely to be the image here, the gathering at the time of judgment. Again we have a now/not yet problem in that this calling out of the disciples occurred at the time the Roman legions moved against Jerusalem, it is achieved in our age by gospel preaching, and in the parousia by the sounding of the trumpet, the same clarion call which will raise the dead in the last day.

arcomenwn (arcwn) pres. part. "when [these things] begin" - beginning. A genitive absolute, therefore probably forming a temporal clause, as NIV.

toutwn "these things" - What things? Surely the events associated with the destruction of the temple, the primary sign being the surrounding of Jerusalem by military forces ("the desolating sacrilege", cf Mk.) , although Bock argues for "the Son of Man's appearance with cosmic signs."

ginesqai (ginomai) pres. inf. "to take place" - The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the participle "beginning".

anakuyate (anakuptw) aor. imp. "stand up" - stand erect. The aorist expressing immediate action. Possibly "look up", Moffatt, but more likely as NIV.

dioti "because" - Expressing cause/reason. We can stand confidently upright, rather than cower in fear, "because" our redemption is near.

uJmwn gen. pro. "your" - [because the redemption draws near] of you. The genitive is adjectival, possessive, although possibly verbal, objective, where the genitive "of you" receives the redemptive act.

hJ apolutrwsiV (iV ewV) "redemption" - release of something gained by the payment of a price, therefore liberation, deliverance. As is evident in this whole passage, the interpretation of each element, such as here with the word "redemption", is determined by our understanding of the time sequence in this prophecy. If, for instance, we have taken v35 literally, along with Lightfoot and his ilk, then the "redemption / deliverance" is from the persecution of the Jewish rebels and the Roman armies around AD70. If, on the other hand, we regard that v25 and following, addresses the future return of Christ, then either we are looking at "deliverance" from the great tribulation, or "redemption" in eternal terms. Following the note above, we are best to opt for a layered "deliverance" from the "desolation", both the destruction of Jerusalem and the tribulation prior to the coming of Christ. Of course, "redemption", as presently offered in the gospel of grace, should also be included since there is a sense, within the perspective of Biblical eschatology, that today is the last day.

eggizei (eggizw) pres. "is drawing near" - draws near. In terms of approaching a particular reference point, here probably in time terms; "you will soon be set free", CEV.


iv] The parable of the fig tree, v29-31. As new sprouts on the fig tree tell us that summer is near, so the presence of these signs tell us that God's eternal reign is bursting in upon us. The early Christians witnessed Jerusalem surrounded by armies and they knew well that the end of the restored kingdom of Israel was at hand. History tells us that the believers fled Jerusalem before its destruction by Rome in 70AD. These same signs will herald the end of our age and the realization of the kingdom of heaven. Let us pray that we too will be able to read the signs in that day. So, read the evident signs and don't be caught out.

autoiV dat. pro. "them" - [and he said a parable] to them. Dative of indirect object.

parabolhn (h) "this parable" - a parable. Parable in the sense of illustration, rather than riddle, ie. this is a teaching parable, not a kingdom parable. The "lesson" supports Jesus' teaching that the signs of the coming "desolation" will be easily understood, namely Jerusalem under siege. "He told them a lesson from nature", Bock.

idete (eidon) aor. imp. "look at" - behold, see, look at. Mark has "learn from" and this is probably the sense Luke intends by his "look at."


oJtan + subj. "when [they sprout leaves]" - when [they spout]. Technically forming an indefinite temporal clause, "whenever", although definite, "when", makes better sense, as NIV.

bleponteV (blepw) pres. part. "you can see" - seeing. Adverbial participle, consecutive, expressing the result of the sprouting. With the adverb "already", untranslated, possibly "as soon as you see."

apo "for [yourselves]" - [seeing, you know] from [yourselves]. Expressing source; "you are able to work out for yourselves without anyone telling you."

oJti "that [summer is near]" - Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what we can know; "the fact that."

hdh "-" - already. Used twice in this verse expressing immediacy. "Summer is now near", NJB.


ouJtwV kai "even so" - and thus, so. Comparative; "in the same way also, you, when you see these things happening", Nolland.

uJmeiV "you" - Who, the disciples or the crowd? Most likely the disciples are intended.

oJtan + subj. "when you see" - Again forming an indefinite temporal clause, but as above, "when", rather than "whenever."

tauta "these things" - The events associated with the destruction of the temple, particularly the siege of Jerusalem.

ginomena (ginomai) pres. part. "happening" - becoming. The participle may be treated as adjectival, limiting "these things", "things which are happening", although best viewed as an object complement, "these things taking place."

oJti "that" - Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what "you know".

hJ basileia "the kingdom" - Note Mark "know that he/it is near, at [the] doors", ie. The rule of God (the kingdom of God), or the Son of Man (unlikely to be the "desolation", so Lane). Luke is obviously referring to the consummation of the kingdom, the realization of God's eternal reign in Christ. Of course, the kingdom can be "already" with us, in the sense of inaugurated, a now reality, but it is also a future hope, a not-yet reality. As noted above, the problem we face with a now / not-yet kingdom, packaged within created time, is not faced in the heavenly domain which lies outside of time. So, in eternal terms, the kingdom is already consummated, Christ has come into his heavenly domain, such that even now God has "raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the ages to come he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus", Eph.2:6-7. This dichotomy is but a moment within God's sovereign grace, 2Pet.3:8.

tou qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive, but possibly verbal, subjective.

egguV adv."near" - Spatially near, or in temporal terms? Probably near in time terms. The same thought is in Mark, "at the door."


v] Saying, v32-33: Finally, Jesus answers the disciples' question "when", namely "this generation will not pass away until all these things have taken place." The apostles did indeed witness the fulfillment of Jesus' words, but we need to be reminded that Jesus' prophetic words apply to our age as well as to the church in the first century.

amhn legw uJmin "I tell you the truth" - Always a reinforcing statement, "truly I say unto you."

oJti "-" - that. Introducing a dependent statement of indirect speech stating what Jesus says to them, namely an important truth.

hJ genea auJth "this generation" - Given the numerous eschatological interpretations of this passage, "this generation" has been given the sense, "the last days generation", "the Jewish race", "the Christian church" .... Surely "this generation" simply means Jesus' contemporaries.

ou mh + subj. "[will] certainly not [pass away]" - [may] definitely not [pass away, cease to exist]. A subjunctive of emphatic negation reinforcing Jesus' denial. Expressed positively, "these things will certainly happen within the life-time of this generation", Barclay.

eJwV an + subj. "until" - until [may occur]. Serving to introduce an indefinite temporal clause.

panta "all these things" - all. The "these things" is assumed, and properly so since Mark has "all these things", but we are again left wondering what makes up the "all". Presumably it is again the events associated with the destruction of the temple, but there are other possibilities, eg. the "dreadful commotions" "before the end of the age."


de "but" - but, and. Adversative, as NIV.

mou gen. pro. "my [words]" - The genitive is adjectival, possessive, but possibly verbal, subjective.

ou mh + fut. "[will] never [pass away]" - [will] by no means [pass away]. Double negative again reinforcing Jesus' denial. Expressed positively, "the sky and the earth won't last for ever, but my word's will", CEV.


vi] Saying / oracle, v34-35. Jesus warns his disciples to be alert. These words warn us to not get caught up in worldly interests such that we take our eyes off Jesus. The last days will be devoid of faith and many believers will be carried away with the cares of the world. It is easy for a believer to slip into the business of daily living and drift in faith and so fail to join with the Son of Man in the day of glory.

prosecete (prosecw) pres. imp. "be careful" - pay attention to, keep on the lookout for, be alert for, be on guard against. The present tense expressing the idea of a constant state of alertness.

eJautoiV dat. ref. pro. "your" - to yourselves. Dative of direct object; "but watch yourselves", ESV.

mhpote + subj."or" - lest. Introducing a negated purpose clause.

barhqwsin (barew) aor. pas. subj. "will be weighed down" - may be burdened. Futuristic subjunctive. The sense is of our minds ("hearts") becoming insensitive, such that spiritual insight is dulled. "Be careful not to let your minds be dulled", Barclay.

en + dat. "with" - in. Instrumental; "by".

merimnaiV (a) "the anxieties" - the worries of life. An obstacle of spiritual insight, Rom.13:13, Gal.5:21.

biwtikaiV adj. "of life" - pertaining to this life.

episth/ (efisthmi) aor. subj. "[that day] will close" - may come upon suddenly. "Will suddenly catch you like a trap", CEV.

ef (epi) + acc. "on [you]" - Spacial, often expressing "the action of a superior force or agency"*; "upon you."

aifnidioV adj. "suddenly" - Best in the sense of "unexpectedly".

wV "like [a trap]" - as [a trap]. Comparative. Many translations attach this phrase from the beginning of v35 to the end of this verse, so NIV.


gar "for" - Expressing cause/ reason, introducing a causal clause explaining why it is necessary to "be careful." Although unlikely, this verse may be read "It will close like a trap on all people on earth", NCV. This is possible as some manuscripts place the preposition "for" in front of the verb "will come (will close)." The sense being that all people face the trap. Most translations follow the reading where the preposition "for" follows the verb "will come", so NIV. "Trap" is then read with verse 34. The sense is then that the "day" comes on all people, but it will only trap/snare those believers who have failed to remain alert. Of course, this translation raises questions on the issue of perseverance.

epeiseleusetai (epeisercomai) fut. "it will come [upon]" - will close/fall [upon]. "For that day will assault everyone who lives on the face of the earth", NAB.

touV kaqhmenouV (kaqhmai) pres. part. "[all] those who live" - [all] the ones sitting. The participle serves as a substantive.

epi "on" - upon. Spacial.

thV ghV (h) "[the face] of the [whole] earth" - [face] of all the earth. The genitive is adjectival, partitive.


vii] Saying / exhortation, v36: We need to pray that God will give us clear insight such that we are not lead us away from Christ. In the end, only those who continue to watch to their faith in the Son of Man will stand with him in the last day.

agrupneite (agrupnew) pres. imp. "be [always] on the watch" - be alert, stay awake, be watchful, be vigilant. Along with the phrase "in every moment (always)" underlines the idea of "constant watchfulness", in the sense of a sentry on guard in a watchtower being always alert. Note, it is possible that "always" modifies "pray", so "always praying", Williams, but constant watchfulness, as NIV, seems best. Watching for what? The signs of the end time again, or watching to our faith?

en + dat. "always" - in [all time]. Temporal use of the preposition.

deomenoi (deomai) pres. pas. part. "praying" - praying. The participle is possibly expressing manner, how a person should keep alert; "be on the alert, praying at all times ..", REB, or possibly expressing purpose, "stay awake in order to pray", Nolland.

iJna + subj. "that" - Serving either to introduce a dependent statement expressing the content of the prayer, or as a final clause, "in order that", expressing the purpose of the prayer. Content seems best.

katiscushte (katiscuw) aor. subj. "you may be able [to escape]" - you may be able, have strength [to pass through safely]. Possibly "strong enough to come through", Barclay, but "able", as NIV, is better - praying for the ability to recognize the signs. The infinitive "to escape" is complementary.

tauta panta "all" - all these things. Again, "these things" are likely to be the the events associated with the destruction of the temple / signs / tribulation, rather than "all these dangers", Moffatt.

ta mellonta ginesqai "that is about to happen" - [all these things] being about to happen. The substantive participle with the infinitive expressing a simple future tense, "to come", Moffatt; "that you may be able to recognize these future signs."

staqhnai (iJsthmi) aor. pas. inf. "[that you may be able] to stand" - to stand. The aorist is possibly ingressive, where the emphasis is on the beginning of the action, so "take your stand." Again the infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of "you may be able."

emprosqen "before" - before, in front of. Spacial. Often viewed as a negative image, ie. standing in the dock ready to be judged, but the image can also be a positive one. It can denote a believer's "successful negotiation of the trials of the eschatological period and safe arrival at the place of abiding security", Nolland. "In the presence of the Son of Man", Barclay.

tou anqrwpou (oV) gen. "[the Son] of Man" - The genitive is adjectival, relational.


Luke Introduction



[Pumpkin Cottage]