2 Corinthians


6. Paul's meeting with Titus, 7:5-16

Paul is overjoyed by the tidings brought by Titus


"In this section, Paul declares his joy that the Corinthians have repented of the wrongs which had led him to write a harsh letter to them. Paul also expresses his joy over the way in which the Corinthians had received Titus on his recent visit to them", TH.


i] Context: See 1:1-7. In the terms of first century rhetoric, Paul presented his propositio, his proposition / thesis, in 2:14-17, and then went on to develop this in his probatio, rhetorical proofs, 3:1-6:13, summing up with an exhortatio, exhortation, 6:14-7:4. We now come to a digressio, a major digression, 7:5-9:15. In this section of his letter / address, Paul speaks of his meeting with Titus and his arrangements concerning the collection for the saints 7:2-9:15. Then, with his proposition / thesis in mind, he will present a refutatio, a defense of his ministry, 10:1-12:18.


ii] Background: See 1:1-7.


iii] Structure: Paul's joy at the tidings brought by Titus:

Paul's happy meeting with Titus, v2-16:

Titus' good news - sorrow, longing and concern for Paul, v5-7;

Positive consequences of the severe letter - repentance, v8-12.

The joy experienced by Titus himself, v13-16.


iv] Interpretation:

Paul has just been thrown out of Ephesus (56AD), and while heading for Macedonia, he wonders if his letter, carried by Titus to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians), was accepted, or rejected. Titus now reports that, other than a small opposition party (the Judaizers??), the church has reaffirmed Paul as their apostle. This fills his heart with joy.

Verses 5-16 recount:

*The consummate relief and deep joy felt by Paul when he learned from Titus that the Corinthians had responded positively to the `severe letter', v5-7, 9, 13, 16;

*the Corinthians' response to this letter, v8-11;

*Paul's purpose in sending the letter, v12; and;

*Titus' reaction to his encounter with the Corinthians, v13b-15, so Barnett.


The severe / painful letter: In this passage Paul mentions again the severe letter, v8, 12, cf., 2:3-4. As already noted, the identity of this letter is open to debate. Some commentators argue that it is a letter sent to the Corinthian believers specifically addressing sexual and cultic problems in the congregation, a letter now lost, so Barnett, Thrall, Furnish. Others identify this letter with 1 Corinthians (the traditional view), so Naylor. Others suggest the "severe letter" has been attached to 2 Corinthians and is wholly, or in part, to be identified with 2 Corinthians 10-13. Although it is no longer widely held that chapters 10-13 are the severe letter, it is none the less accepted by many commentators that these chapters were originally a separate letter to the church, so Barrett, Bruce. For a counter view see Nicoll p33, Expositors Gk. The linked exposition aligns the "severe letter" with 1 Corinthians.


v] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

Text - 7:5

Paul's joy at the tidings brought by Titus, v5-16: i] Paul introduces his observations with regard the response of the Corinthians to his "severe letter", v5-7. Paul now speaks of his joy at meeting Titus in Macedonia, probably in the town of Philippi. He is particularly happy when he hears that the Corinthian believers have accepted his criticisms detailed in the severe letter.

kai gar "for" - and for. Taking kai as emphatic, "indeed", gar leans toward reason, introducing an explanation as to how it is that Paul found joy in the midst of all his troubles, but probably gar better serves a transitional function, such that Paul now begins to relate again his movements which he commenced in 2:13; "indeed, even after we came to Macedonia", Harris.

elqontwn (ercomai) gen. aor. part. "when we came" - having come [into macedonia]. The genitive absolute participle with the genitive pronoun hJmwn, "we", introduces a temporal clause, as NIV.

hJ sarx (sarx sarkoV) "this body [of ours]" - the flesh, body [of us]. Nominative subject of the verb "to have." Referring to the fleshly self, the physical self subject to the difficulties of life; "we were physically exhausted", TH.

eschken (ecw) perf. "had" - had [no rest]. The perfect is probably aoristic were the action is stated without reference to its consequence.

all (alla) "but" - Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction; "not ......, but ......, but ...."

qlibomenoi (qlibw) pres. pas. part. "we were harassed" - [in every way] being afflicted, troubled, oppressed, harassed. Given the proceeding clause "our body had no rest", a finite verb would be expect in this following clause, rather than a nominative participle. For this reason, most commentators suggest an anacoluthon (an irregular syntactical construction), although these "irregularities" are often stylistic. Paul sometimes uses a participle for coordinate action, "we had no rest, we were harassed", a kind of attendant circumstance participle, cf., MHT iii p343. Participles are commonly used in Hebrew as finite verbs, probably technically a periphrastic construction with an assumed verb to-be, this practice has influenced NT Gk. and is sometimes found in Paul's letters, cf., Moule IB p179. We could describe the participle as an absolute participle with the force of an imperfect indicative, so Zerwick, but better a periphrastic construction where the verb to-be must be supplied. Given the preceding construction elqontwn hJmwn, "we having come", it is not unreasonable for Paul to write "[we] being afflicted", ie., "a construction according to sense", cf. ,Harris. ref. BDF#468(i), Robertson 415, 439, 1135. However we classify the construction, Paul's meaning is clear; "we were persecuted relentlessly", Junkins.

en + dat. "at [every turn]" - in. Local, "in the midst of every circumstance we faced."

maxai (h) "conflicts" - [outside there were] battles [inside there were fears]. Nominative subject of an assumed verb to-be. "While we struggled with other people, we also had to struggle with the fears in our minds", TH.


Meeting his friend Titus, was a comforting experience for Paul. Paul's meeting with Titus probably took place in Philippi, although we are only given the general area, namely, Macedonia. The meeting obviously encourages Paul in that Titus is a good friend and colleague. Paul is also encouraged (v7) by the report Titus gives concerning the Corinthian church, primarily that they had accepted his "severe letter". There is though, some bad news: the collection has not been finalized; there are factional issues within the church; there remain some moral issues; and still some negative views toward Paul himself (spiritually ineffective, 10:1-7).

alla "but" - Adversative, as NIV.

oJ parakalwn (parakalew) pres. part. "[God] who comforts" - [god], the one encouraging, comforting, consoling. The participle can be treated as adjectival, "God who comforts", as NIV, or as a substantive standing in apposition to "God", "but God, the comforter of the downcast, ..."

touV tapeinouV adj. "the downcast" - the humble, lowly. With the psychological meaning here, "downcast / depressed", rather than a moral sense, "lowly, humble." "Dejected", Moffatt.

en + dat. "in [the coming of Titus]" - [encouraged us] by. An instrumental sense is most likely intended, expressing means, as NIV, although a temporal sense is possible, "when Titus arrived", "with the coming of Titus", Furnish.

Titou (oV) gen. "Titus" - [the coming] of titus. The genitive is adjectival, verbal, subjective.


The greater "comfort" is found in the message brought by Titus. The church in Corinth has swung their affection back to Paul, aware of their sin and sorry for it. Paul's severe letter to them (1 Corinthians) has done its work.

de "and" - but/and. Transitional, indicating the next step in the argument.

ou monon .... alla kai "not only.... but also" - not only [in = by the coming of him], but [and = also in =by]. Counterpoint construction. As noted above, Paul is also encouraged by Titus' report, ie., "the comfort you gave him" = his being welcomed and accepted in his capacity as Paul's representative.

en + dat. "by [his coming]" - in. Instrumental, expressing means, "by means of", as NIV.

h|/ dat. pro. "-" - [the encouragement] by which [he had been comforted, encouraged]. Instrumental dative, expressing means; "by means of which."

ef (epi) + dat. "[you] had given him" - by, over [you]. Possibly spacial, "at your hands", or causal, "because of you."

anaggellwn (anggellw) pres. part. "he told" - reporting. The participle is adverbial, causal, "for he gave me such a report", Moffatt, "as [Titus] told us of your longing, ...", Barnett.

hJmin dat. pro. "us" - to us. Dative of indirect object.

uJmwn gen. pro. "your" - [the longing] of you, [the mourning] of you. The genitive may be classified as adjectival, possessive, or verbal, subjective. Repeated three times and placed in an emphatic position in the Gk. "He told us of your longing to see us, of how you mourned for us while we were away, and of your unbridled zeal for me", Junkins.

uJper + gen. "for [me]" - [the zeal of you] for [me]. Expressing benefit / advantage, as NIV, or possibly reference / respect.

wJste + inf. "so that" - that [it caused me more to rejoice]. This construction introduces a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that .....", as NIV. "All this made me happier yet", Barclay.


ii] In v8-12, Paul expresses how happy he is that the Corinthian believers have accepted his criticisms detailed in the severe letter. He is not sad he sent it, but is sad that it hurt them, although the outcome, namely their repentance, is good news indeed.

Three conditional / concessive clauses introduced by ei kai, make for a complex sentence, v8-9a. The second conditional / concessive clause is broken by a parenthesis which contains the third conditional / concessive clause, identified in the NIV by dashes (bracketed by NAB, Cassirer..). See Thrall 491, Harris 534. The sense is "Although I grieved you by the letter, I do not regret it. Although I was regretting (I see that the letter grieved you, although only for an hour), now I rejoice ....." Knox carries the sense nicely, although not necessarily in line with the original syntax; "Yes, even if I caused you pain by my letter, I am not sorry for it. Perhaps I was tempted to feel sorry, when I saw how my letter had caused you even momentary pain, but now I am glad; not glad of the pain, but glad of the repentance the pain brought with it."

oJti "-" - that. Introducing a causal clause; "because even if I grieved you by my letter, I do not regret it", so Long, although it may well serve here as a loose connective, "in fact", Moffatt, so NIV.

ei kai + ind. "if / even if" - even if, as is the case [i grieved you in the epistle, then i do not regret it]. Introducing a conditional / concessive clause 1st class where the proposed condition is assumed to be true, but the presence of an ascensive kai produces a concessive sense, "even if" = "although". In such a sentence the "protasis states a supposition the fulfillment of which is thought of ... as unfavorable to the fulfillment of the apodosis", Burton #278. "Although, as is the case, I may have made you feel uncomfortable by what I wrote in my letter, then I am not sorry that I sent it."

en + dat. "by [my letter]" - in [the epistle]. Instrumental, expressing means, as NIV.

metamelomai (metamelomai) imperf. mid. "I did regret it" - [even if, as is the case] i was regretting it [(v9) then now i rejoice].

oJti "[I see] that ..." - [for i see] that. Introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what Paul sees.

proV wJran "for a little while" - [even if, as is the case, that letter grieved you then it was only] toward = for an hour. Temporal use of the preposition proV.


nun adv. "yet now" - now [i rejoice]. This temporal adverb serves to introduce the apodoses of the second conditional / concessive clause from v8.

oJti "[not] because" - [not] because [you were grieved]. Introducing a causal clause explaining why Paul is happy.

all (alla) "but" - Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction, "not ....., but ....."

eluphqhte (lupew) aor. pas. "you were made sorry" - [because] you were grieved. "You were distressed", Barclay, rather than just had their feelings hurt.

eiV + acc. "led to" - toward. Spacial, direction, or possibly purpose; "you were grieved into repentance", Long.

metanoian (a) "repentance" - repentance. Cranfield notes that Paul does not use this word very often since the idea of repentance / turning to Christ it is incorporated in the act of "believing / exercising faith". Here of "a radical change of outlook that produced 'grieving'", Harris.

gar "for" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the sorrow of the Corinthians led to repentance; "[because] your distress was all part of the purpose of God, and was meant to ensure that you should not be the losers by anything we did", Barclay.

kata + acc. "as [God intended]" - [you were grieved] according to [god]. Expressing a standard, "according to God." Paul states that this grief was according to God's will, cf., Barrett, "a grief that leads individuals to view their conduct as God does", Martin, ie., "a godly sorrow", a grief that God uses.

iJna + subj. "so [were not harmed]" - that. Here probably introducing a consecutive / result clause, "with the result that / so that". "You were not in any respect losers through what we had done", Cassirer.

en + dat. "in [any way]" - in [nothing]. Adverbial, reference / respect; "with respect to .."

ex (ek) + gen. "by [us]" - [you might suffer loss] from [us]. Here expressing means; a means consisting of a source, as NIV.


The sense of "godly sorrow" is sharpened by comparing it with "worldly sorrow." Godly sorrow is a grief prompted by an awareness of wrong / loss before God. Such leads to repentance and thus salvation. "Worldly sorrow" is an awareness of wrong / loss without reference to God and so achieves nothing but death.

gar "-" - for [the grief according to god (godly sorrow) works repentance to salvation without regret]. More reason than cause, explaining "the grief according to God" in v9.

kata + acc. "" - [sorrow] according to [god]. Here the preposition functions adverbially turning the phrase "according to God" into an adverb, "Godly", as NIV.

ergazetai (ergazomai) pres. "brings [repentance]" - works [repentance]. "Brings about / gives rise to repentance", Harris.

eiV "that leads to" - to, toward [salvation]. Spacial, direction, "whose fruit is salvation", Plummer, or purpose, so Long. "The fullness of life promised to those who believe", Furnish.

ametamelhton adj. "leaves no regret" - not to be regretted, without regret. If the adjective modifies "repentance" we are left with an oxymoron, "repentance not to be repented of", but as Barrett points out, it probably applies to the compound thought repentance-unto-salvation, certainly something not to be regretted.

de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the argument to a contrasting point.

tou kosmou (oV) gen. "worldly sorrow" - [the grief] of the world. The genitive "of the world" is adjectival, attributive, limiting grief, a "worldly grief", a grief that is characterized by the attitudes of the world, a grief that is without reference to God, as NIV.

katergazetai (katergazetai) pres. "brings [death]" - works [death]. "The angry pain suffered by a guilty, secular society only widens the gulf between them and God, certifying their spiritual death", Junkins. "Produces death", NRSV.


For the Corinthians, "Godly sorrow" prompted them to correct their behavior.

idou "see" - behold, look [this thing, the to be grieved according to god]. Interjection. "Mark well, then", Cassirer.

poshn pro. "what" - how much, how great = what [diligence did it produce in you]? Interrogative pronoun. Better, "what"; "Behold, what diligence this godly grief has worked in you", possibly as a question.

auto touto "this" - this [thing]. Nominative subject of the verb "to produce"; "the effect of this very thing", Cassirer.

to ... luphqhnai (lupew) aor. pas. inf. "[Godly] sorrow" - the [according to god] to be grieved]. The articular infinitive serves as a substantive, and with the adverbial prepositional phrase kata qeon, "according to God" = "godly", it forms an appositional noun clause defining auto touto, "this thing"; "that is, your having come to feel Godly sorrow."

kateirgasato (katergazomai) aor. "has produced" - produced, worked. "It made you take the matter seriously", REB.

uJmin dat. pro. "in you" - Dative of interest, advantage; "what it did for you."

alla "what" - but. Here we have the first of a series of correlative constructions, although we would not have expected an adversative alla, "but". It may be emphatic here so "What defense!" = "What determination to defend yourselves against my charge that you have not shown proper regard for me", so Barrett. Long suggests that Paul's question, "What diligence did it produce in you?" (ie., their godly sorrow / repentance) may imply the answer "Not much"; "What has this godly grief produced in you? Not much! But what eagerness to clear yourselves, what ....." If this is the case, alla is used for a counterpoint construction, and then used for the following correlative constructions; "but what ..... what ..... what ..." Long's approach implies that the list is "somewhat cheeky", if not sarcastic. If Paul's words here are a genuine affirmation of the Corinthians response to his severe letter, then poshn, "what", introduces a statement, "What diligence it produced in you", with "not only that" assumed (Barnett), serving as the protasis of the correlative counterpoints introduced by alla; "What diligence it produced in you. Not only that, but what defence (eagerness to clear yourselves), what indignation, ...."

aganakthsin (iV ewV) "what indignation" - [but what] indignation. A hapax legomenon, once only use in the NT. "Indignation at the shame brought upon the church", Plummer.

fobon (oV) "what alarm" - [but what] fear. Possibly fear of God's judgment, or even Paul's judgment, but probably something more general, "it (the letter) made you indignant and apprehensive", REB.

epipoqhsin (iV ewV) "what longing" - [but what] longing, yearning. Probably in the terms of affection, "a yearning to see Paul in person", Harris.

zhlon (oV) "what concern" - [but what] zeal. "A zeal to comply with Paul's wishes", Harris???

ekdikhsin (iV ewV) "what readiness to see justice done" - [but what] vengeance. Probably in the sense that the Corinthians have now acted against the immoral members in the congregations, so Thrall. "How ready it made you to punish the offender", Phillips.

en + dat. "at every point" - in [all, everything]. Local, expressing space / sphere, "in every circumstance / situation", or reference / respect.

sunesthsate (sunisthmi) aor. "your have proved" - you recommended, commended, showed, presented. "In all this you have proved yourselves"; "cleared yourselves of blame", NJB.

einai (eimi) pres. inf. "to be [innocent]" - [yourselves] to be. The infinitive serves to introduce a dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what is "recommended" by their behavior, namely, that they are innocent in this matter; "in every sense you have proved yourselves faithful before God (as regards this matter)", Junkins. Plummer notes the durative nature of the present tense of the infinitive as if Paul is confirming their ongoing faithfulness, but Martin thinks it is a "real" present. "The Corinthians had been guilty of complacency, but now, after having taken the action described in 7:11a, they are 'established' as being on Paul's side", Martin.

tw/ pragmati (a atoV) "in this matter" - [pure, blameless] in the = this matter. Dative of respect, "with respect to this matter".


The punishment of the offenders and the vindication of the offended, although an immediate purpose of the "painful" letter (1 Corinthians), is superseded for a greater purpose, namely the church's acceptance of their apostle. Paul's primary purpose in writing was not to set upon the wrongdoer, nor to encourage the person who was wronged, rather to "make clear to the Corinthians the reality of their devotion to him", Harris. Of course, Paul has written to deal with wrongdoing in the church, but it is not altogether his purpose in writing. Thrall suggests that such evidences Hebraic manner - "a negated alternative is not intended to be negated absolutely."

ara "so" - therefore. Possibly inferential, but in Paul's letters this conjunction always introduces a consecutive clause expressing result, "so then / as a result / consequently", Thrall.

ei kai + ind. "even though" - even if = although, as is the case, [i wrote to you, then it was not]. Introducing a conditional / concessive clause. See v8 above.

uJmin dat. pro. " to you" - Dative of indirect object.

eJneken + gen. "on account of" - because of, on account of, for the sake of. This preposition is primarily used to form a consecutive clause, "consequently, as a result" - a hypothetical result inevitably indicates purpose. None-the-less, the preposition here may well introduce a causal clause, as NIV. It appears three times in this verse. Most commentators take the third use, eneken tou + inf., as final, expressing purpose, eg. Barrett; "it was not on account of the one who did wrong ..... but in order that your zeal for us might be made known", NRSV. Harris suggests that all three express purpose / result.

to adikhsantoV aor. part. "the one who did the wrong" - the one having done wrong. The participle serves as a substantive; "the person who did wrong / the wrongdoer". This designation seems rather pointed, as does the following "injured party", and is used to support the argument for a lost letter, a letter that refers to these persons directly. None-the-less, these descriptors could easily refer to the individuals whose behavior is criticized in 1 Corinthians.

tou adikhqentoV (adikew) aor. pas. part. "the injured party" - [nor because of] the one having been wronged. The participle serves as a substantive; "the wronged person".

all (alla) "but rather" - but [in order that the zeal of you for us may be made manifest to you before god]. Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction which serves as the apodosis of the conditional / concessive clause.

enwpion + gen. "before" - before [god]. Spacial: "in the sight of God". The position of the phrase at the end of the Gk. verse is emphatic, aligning it with the infinitive "to make manifest"; "Rather, the purpose of my letter was to reveal (to make manifest) to you (proV uJmaV), before God, your devotion to us." The phrase may serve to "underline the Corinthian's responsibility to God for their attitude to Paul as God's apostle", Thrall ref., Bultman.

tou adikhqentoV (adikew) aor. pas. inf. "you could see" - to be made manifest. The genitive articular infinitive forms a purpose clause, "in order that", with the accusative subject of the infinitive being "the zeal of you for us". This, of course, renders the third use of eJneken redundant. See Moule 1st ed. p83, 140 for similar redundant uses.

thn spoudhn (h) "how devoted" - the zeal, earnestness. The Corinthian's "zeal" is best understood as their wholehearted willingness, under God, to obey their apostle, cf., Barnett.

thn "-" - the. The article serves as a nominalizer, turning the prepositional phrase "for us" into a substantive standing in apposition to "zeal"; "the purpose of my letter was to reveal to you, before God, your devotion, the devotion you have for us."

uJper + gen "to us" - [of you] to, for [us]. Numerous variants exist, but generally it is a choice between "your devotion to us" and "our devotion to you." The first option, as NIV, is best. The preposition uJper expresses benefit / advantage, "for us"


iii] Now, in v13-16, Paul expresses how his confidence in the Corinthian believers has been proved correct in that they welcomed the visit of Titus and heard him out. Modern translations, from the RSV onward, tend to make the second half of this verse the beginning of a new paragraph, but such a division is unnecessary.

dia touto "by [all this]" - because of this = therefore. This causal construction is inferential / drawing a logical conclusion; "therefore we are comforted", RSV. Possibly attaching v13a to v12 and commencing a new paragraph with v13b. This is probably unnecessary; "We felt better when you felt better; rejoicing uproariously in delight that Titus had been treated so well by you", Junkins.

parakeklhmeqa (parakalew) perf. pas. "we are encouraged" - we have been comforted. The perfect tense expressing "have been comforted" and "are comforted continually."

epi + dat. "in addition to [our own encouragement]" - [but/and] to, on, upon [the encouragement of us]. Here with a spacial sense "over and above / in addition to", but possibly causal.

ecarhmen (cairw) aor. pas. "we were [especially] delighted" - [exceedingly more] we rejoiced. "We were made even more joyful", NJB.

epi "[to see how happy Titus was]" - at [the joy of titus]. This second use of the preposition seems to take a different sense to its first use in this verse. Probably it identifies the object of Paul's delight, he was delighted "at" the joy of Titus, so Barnett, but possibly causal, "because of", so Thrall, even possibly identifying the basis of Paul's delight, "on the basis of". "We rejoiced even more at the joy of Titus", Barnett.

oJti "because" - that. Here introducing a causal clause explaining why Paul is so happy; "because Titus' spirit was refreshed by all of you", Barnett.

anapepautai (anapauw) perf. pas. "he has been refreshed" - [the spirit of him] has been set at rest. Titus' "spirit", his "human faculty, ... inward life, ... the self", Thrall, "has been refreshed" in the sense of "a lasting cessation from a burden of personal interest", Martin, ie., the Corinthians welcomed him when he had expected the worst.

apo + gen. "by" - from [you all]. As Martin notes, one would expect uJpo + gen. to express agency = "by", but obviously Paul intends a causal sense "because of".


Paul has spoken with pride about the Corinthians to Titus, and his words have proved true.

oJti "-" - that. Most likely causal explaining a further reason why Paul rejoices, because "he has not been made to feel ashamed of his boasting to Titus about the Corinthians", Thrall.

ei + ind. "-" - if, as is the case, [anything i boasted about you to him, then i was not put to shame]. Again Paul forms a 1st class conditional clause which is more concessive than conditional, see v8. It's as if Paul is underplaying the condition (the protasis), "does not want to make too much of it", Barnett. "Because, although I did boast somewhat about you to Titus, the important fact is that you did not in any way embarrass me."

kekauchmai (kakaomai) perf. "I had boasted" - Paul's "boast" is certainly not "faint praise", on the contrary, he "must have been aware of their limitations [but] on the whole he had confidence in them, and therefore told Titus that they were fundamentally sound", Barrett.

autw/ "to him" - Dative of indirect object.

uJper + gen. "about [you]" - Here expressing reference / respect; serving instead of peri.

alla "but" - but. Strong adversative standing in counterpoint construction; "not...., but on the contrary", Harris.

wJV ..... outwV "just as ..... so" - as [we spoke all things in truth to you] so thus, in this way [became truth the boasting of us before titus]. A correlative comparative construction expressing manner. The way the Corinthians acted toward Titus, was in line with the way Paul spoke about the Corinthians. "Just as .......... and in the same way the boast we made to Titus has proved true", TEV.

panta "everything" - all things. Variant pantote "always", but better, "all things" = all Paul has said on his visits to Corinth and the content of all the letters he has written to the church. "Every word we addressed to you bore the mark of truth", REB.

uJmin dat. pro. "to you" - Dative of indirect object.

en + dat. "-" - in [truth]. The preposition here is adverbial, expressing manner; "everything we said to you was spoken truly"

epi + gen. "to [Titus]" - upon = before [titus]. Spacial; "our boasting before Titus came true" = "the boast we made before Titus has turned out to be nothing more than the truth", Cassirer, but possibly causal, "because .....", so Long.


The Corinthians have brought Titus great joy due to their acceptance of his ministry among them and so naturally, he reciprocates with love.

ta splagcna (on) "[his] affection" - [and] the bowels [of him are more so toward you]. Nominative subject of the verb to-be. Meaning "inward affection"; "his heart goes out all the more to you", TEV.

anamimhnskomenou (anamimnhskw) gen. pres. part. "when he remembers" - remembering. The genitive participle is adverbial, best treated as either temporal, as NIV, or causal.

uJmwn "that you" - [the obedience] of you [all]. The genitive is verbal, subjective, modified by the genitive adjective "all".

thn ... uJpakohn (h) "obedient" - the obedience. The "obedience" of the Corinthians is to Titus as Paul's representative, and therefore serves as an acceptance of Paul's apostolic authority. It is this response which fills both Titus and Paul with great joy. "How ready you all were to do what he asked", REB.

wJV "[receiving him]" - as, like / while. The sense of this particle here is unclear, but probably adverbial. It may be temporal, Titus remembers how obedient the Corinthians were "while / when" they received him in fear and trembling, cf., NAB. It may be explanatory, he remembers how obedient they were "in that" they received him in fear and trembling, cf., Barnett. It may be causal, he remembers how obedient they were "because" they received him in fear and trembling.

meta "with" - with [fear and trembling you received him]. Expressing accompaniment, "along with". "The respect and reverence with which you treated him", Phillips.


Paul finally affirms his "complete confidence" in the church.

oJti "-" - [i rejoice] that. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception, expressing the content of Paul's joy, "that .....", or possibly causal, "because". Either way, "the translation of qarrw is more important", Plummer.

en + dat. "-" - in [all things]. Possibly local, "I am glad that in the midst of all circumstances I have confidence in you", but more likely adverbial, reference / respect, or better, modal, expressing manner; "I have full confidence in you", Berkeley, as NIV,

qarrw (qarrew) pres. "I have [complete] confidence" - i have confidence. "I am able to depend", BAGD, followed by en = "confidence in"; "you have earned my utmost confidence in you, personally", Junkins.

en + dat. "in" - in [you]. Local, expressing space / sphere, or reference / respect, "about, concerning ...."


2 Corinthians Introduction



[Pumpkin Cottage]