2 Timothy

Exegetical Study Notes on the Greek Text

PDF eBook

These exegetical notes are available for download in the form a 286p A5 PDF eBook Commentary on the Greek text of the Pastoral Epistles of Paul. Follow the link at the bottom of the page.


2 Timothy has a different feel to 1 Timothy; it is less miscellaneous and more unified. There are no new themes or issues covered in this letter that have not already been covered in 1 Timothy, but there is a dramatic change in the personal quality of the letter. Numerous personalities and situations are mentioned and the language used is often more vivid.

The situation in which the letter is composed is probably the driving force behind the change is style. This letter is written from prison at a time when Rome was beginning to persecute the Christian sect. The sense is that the author, presumably Paul, is facing execution with no means of escape. Only Luke is tending to his needs and it is very dangerous for anyone to associate with him. So, Paul is writing a last word to his friend and associate Timothy. In this intimate letter to his beloved son in the faith, Paul encourages Timothy to serve as a faithful Christian minister. He does so in the context of looking back on his life as an apostle and looking forward to his execution and glory.

The structure of 2 Timothy

Opening address, 1:1-14

i] Salutation and thanksgiving, 1:1-5

ii] An exhortation to boldness and faithfulness, 1:6-14

Personal Notes

Personal news, 1:15-18

Testamentary disposition

Timothy, the guardian of Paul's theological heritage, 2:1-2.

"Hand on to people worthy of trust

the things which you have heard me say"

Paul's charge to Timothy, 2:3-4:8

i] A call to dedication and faithfulness, 2:3-13

a) Serving with dedication, 2:3-7

b) The reasons for holding firm, 2:8-13

ii] Confronting the false teachers at Ephesus, 2:14-26

iii] An eschatological perspective of the heresy, 3:1-9

iv] Standing against the heresy; Paul's example, 3:10-17

v] The final charge - do the work of an evangelist, 4:1-5

vi] Paul's testimony, 4:6-8

Personal Notes
Personal information, 4:9-18

i] Personal instructions, 4:9-15

ii] Paul's continuing confidence in the Lord despite his present difficulties, 4:16-18


Final greetings and blessing, 4:19-22


In epistolography, letter writing, the opening of a letter aligns with the exordium in rhetoric, and the conclusio of a letter aligns with the peroratio. The Pastoral letters present in the form of a letter, with 2 Timothy strongly paraenetic, exhortatory.


For an expanded outline of the letter see "Context" 1:1-5.


See 1 Tmothy, Introduction.


See 1 Tmothy, Introduction.


Second Timothy presents as an epistolary testament written just before Paul's execution as a prisoner in Rome. The immediate purpose of the letter is that of a summons to Timothy, that he leave his church, presumably in Ephesus, and join with Paul in Rome.

See 1 Tmothy, Introduction.

Key Issues

See 1 Tmothy, Introduction.

Timothy the man

See 1 Tmothy, Introduction.

English Bible Commentaries on the Pastoral Epistles

Level of complexity:

1, non-technical, to 5, requiring a workable knowledge of Greek.

Deceased: D. For publications no longer in print

Other identifiers: Recommended R; Greek Technical G; Theology T


Barrett, New Clarendon, 1963. 2D

Bernard, CGTSC, 1899. 2GD

D/C - Dibelius and Conzelmann, Hermeneia. 4G

Fee, NIBC, 1989. 3D

Gromacki, Baker, 1 Timothy, 1982. 2

Guthrie, Tyndale, 1957. 2R

Hanson, NCB, 1982, 2D

Hanson, CBC, 1966. 1D

Hendriksen, Baker, 1957. 3D

Houlden, Pelican, 1976, reprint TPI 1989. 1D

Johnson, Anchor, 1 & 2 Timothy, 2001. 4R

Kelly, Blacks / Harpers, 1963. 3

Knight, George W. Knight III, NIGTC, 1992. 5

Leaney, Torch, 1960. 1D

Leske, ChiRho, 1986. 2D

Lock, ICC, 1924/52. 4GD.

MacArthur, Moody, 1 Timothy, 1995, 3.

Marshall, ICC, 1999. 5

Milne, FOB, 1 & 2 Timothy, 1996. 2

Mounce, Word. 5R

Perkins, HGT, 2017. G

Quinn, Anchor, Titus, 1995. 5

Q/W, Quinn and Wacker, ECC. 5R

Simpson, Tyndale Press, 1954. 3GD

Smith, Know your Bible #10, 1972. 1

Stott, BST, 1973. 2

Towner, NICNT. 4

Wilson, Banner of Truth, 1982. 3. Also LABC. 2


PDF eBook commentary download page

2 Timothy: Expositions

Exegetical Commentary on the Greek New Testament


Greek glossary

Index of studies

Home page

Teknia Greek font download


[Pumpkin Cottage]