A verse-by-verse exegetical commentary on the New Testament Greek textIntroduction
2 Timothy has a different feel to 1 Timothy; it is less miscellaneous and more unified. There are no new themes or issues covered in this letter that have not already been covered in 1 Timothy, but there is a dramatic change in the personal quality of the letter. Numerous personalities and situations are mentioned and the language used is often more vivid.
The situation in which the letter is composed is probably the driving force behind the change is style. This letter is written from prison at a time when Rome was beginning to persecute the Christian sect. The sense is that the author, presumably Paul, is facing execution with no means of escape. Only Luke is tending to his needs and it is very dangerous for anyone to associate with him. So, Paul is writing a last word to his friend and associate Timothy. In this intimate letter to his beloved son in the faith, Paul encourages Timothy to serve as a faithful Christian minister. He does so in the context of looking back on his life as an apostle and looking forward to his execution and glory.
The structure of 2 Timothy
i] Salutation and thanksgiving, 1:1-5
ii] An exhortation to boldness and faithfulness, 1:6-14Personal Notes
Personal news, 1:15-18Proposition Testamentary disposition
Timothy, the guardian of Paul's theological heritage, 2:1-2.
"Hand on to people worthy of trust
the things which you have heard me say"Instruction Paul's charge to Timothy, 2:3-4:8
i] A call to dedication and faithfulness, 2:3-13
a) Serving with dedication, 2:3-7
b) The reasons for holding firm, 2:8-13
ii] Confronting the false teachers at Ephesus, 2:14-26
iii] An eschatological perspective of the heresy facing Timothy, 3:1-9
iv] Standing against the heresy in the example set by Paul, 3:10-17
v] The final charge - do the work of an evangelist, 4:1-5
vi] Paul's testimony, 4:6-8Personal Notes Personal information, 4:9-18
i] Personal instructions, 4:9-15
ii] Paul's continuing confidence in the Lord despite his present difficulties, 4:16-18Conclusion
Final greetings and blessing, 4:19-22
In epistolography, letter writing, the opening of a letter aligns with the exordium in rhetoric, and the conclusio of a letter aligns with the peroratio. The Pastoral letters present in the form of a letter, with 2 Timothy strongly paraenetic, exhortatory.
For an expanded outline of the letter see "Context" 1:1-5.
Second Timothy presents as an epistolary testament written just before Paul's execution as a prisoner in Rome. The immediate purpose of the letter is that of a summons to Timothy, that he leave his church, presumably in Ephesus, and join with Paul in Rome.
Timothy the man
Bibliography: Commentaries - The Pastoral Epistles
Barrett, New Clarendon, 1963. Bernard, CGTSC, 1899. D/C. Dibelius/Conzelmann, Hermeneia. Fee, NIBC. Gromacki, Baker, 1 Timothy, 1982. Guthrie, Tyndale, 1957. Hanson, NCB & CBC. Hendriksen, Banner of Truth. Houlden, Pelican, 1976, reprint TPI 1989. Johnson, Anchor. Kelly, Blacks / Harpers, 1963. Knight, NIGTC. Leaney, Torch. Leske, ChiRho. Lock, ICC, 1924/52. MacArthur, Moody. Marshall, ICC, 1999. Milne, FOB. Mounce, Word. Perkins, HGT, 2017. Quinn, Titus, Anchor, 1995. Q/W. Quinn & Wacker, ECC. Rolston, Layman's. Simpson, Tyndale Press, 1954. Smith, Know your Bible 10. Stott, BST. Towner, NICNT. Wilson, Banner of Truth.