The journey begins, 1:1-5:43

3. Conflict in the journey, 2:1-3:6

iii] Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath


It is harvest time, around May, and while walking past a field of wheat or barley, the disciples, as allowed by the law, pick a few ears and eat. The Pharisees argue that the disciples are breaking the law because they are involved in the work of harvest - they are reaping on the Sabbath. Referring to a notable precedent, Jesus points out that the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.

Mark follows this incident up with the healing of the man with the withered hand; a healing on the Sabbath. On this occasion Jesus is teaching in a synagogue and spotting the man in the congregation, he heals him, all within view of the religious authorities. Jesus rounds on the authorities, revealing the true substance of Sabbath law, as opposed to the accumulated debris of imposed regulations. The authorities immediately plan how they might destroy him.


These two episodes, the disciples Sabbath infringement and Jesus healing on the Sabbath, proclaim the dawning of the messianic age, the age of peace and plenty, in and through Jesus, "The Lord of the Sabbath".


i] Context: See 2:1-12. Mark now records the forth and fifth controversy stories. Both of these stories concern Sabbath observance.


ii] Structure: Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath:

Reaping on the Sabbath, 2:23-28:

Setting, v23;

Question, v24;

Response, v25-28.

The example of David, v25-26;

Saying: "The sabbath was made for man .......", v27

Saying: "The Son of man is Lord .......", v28

Healing the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath, 3:1-6:

setting, v1;

question, v2-4;

healing, v5,

response, v6.


iii] Interpretation:

Two episodes on keeping the Sabbath:


Reaping on the Sabbath: In the first episode, 2:23-28, Jesus' use of the David incident is somewhat obscure, since it doesn't concern Sabbath observance as such. Lane suggests that the story "is offered [as] an analogy to Jesus and his disciples." In Jesus' retelling of the story (and his expansion of it!!!) he establishes both the humanity that lies behind divine law, and his authority to adjudge on matters of law. These truths are encapsulated in two sayings:

First: "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath". The story supports Jesus' view "that his disciples' action is not violating the humanitarian purpose of the Sabbath law, even though it may be violating the law as such", Gundry. Sabbath law is not designed to burden us, but to provide an opportunity for rest, a rest that prefigures the coming day of God's eternal rest. The story "shows that the rigidity with which the Pharisees interpreted the ritual law was not in accordance with scripture", Cranfield. It should be noted that Jesus does not excuse the breaking of God's law on the ground of necessity. This is supported by the fact that Mark does not suggest that the disciples were hungry, or in need.

Second: "The Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath". The story reveals "that what David could do because he was David, was a valid precedent for the authority of someone greater than David", France. As David took upon himself the authority to adjudge matters of the law, as it relates to his companions, so does Jesus. Standing within radical rabbinical tradition, Jesus first identifies the humanity of Sabbath law ("the Sabbath is delivered over for your sake, but you are not delivered over to the Sabbath", Rabbi Simeon ben Menasya, ca. 180AD). Now, drawing a consequential result w{ste from his willingness to adjudge on Sabbath law, as it relates to his disciples' actions, Jesus declares his right and authority, as God's messiah, "the Son of Man", to adjudge, and in so doing, proclaims that God's messianic rest is at hand, in and through the Son of Man.


Healing the man with the withered hand on the Sabbath. In the second episode, 3:1-6, rather than breaking Sabbath law, Jesus actually restores it to its proper purpose, a purpose lost in the maze of scribal traditions imposed on divine law. "The dawning of the kingdom of God in Jesus' ministry, brings the fullness of life that means forgiveness and freedom from sin, reconciliation of those who could not eat together, deliverance from demonic power, the overcoming of death and the negative effects of law. Many respond in joy, but some have hard hearts, and on the basis of Scripture, tradition, and sincere religious conviction, consider Jesus a threat to the community of faith and God's purpose for the world. They begin plans to put him to death", Boring.


iv] Synoptics:

Reaping on the Sabbath: Matt:12:1-8, Lk.6:1-5. Mark's account is concise compared to Matthew and Luke. Note comments on 2:27.

Healing on the Sabbath: Matt.12:9-14, Lk.6:6-11. Again Mark's account is concise when compared with Matthew and Luke. Matthew and Luke's account exhibit independence from Mark (it is commonly assumed that both Matthew and Luke use Mark as their primary source).


v] Exposition: A simple exposition of the passage can be found in the pew-level sermon notes Lord of The Sabbath.

Text - 2:23

The disciples reap on the Sabbath, v23-28. In this conflict / pronouncement story, the disciples' rather innocent picking of a few heads of wheat / barley while passing through a field, is viewed as harvesting by some over-scrupulous Pharisees; reaping being classed as a work forbidden on the Sabbath under God's Law. Jesus then draws from an incident in the life of David to remind the Pharisees of the humanitarian nature of the law and of his right to adjudge matters of the law. The episode is related thematically to the preceding episode in that both reveal a controversy related to Jesus' authority, ie., he allows his disciples to break fast, and here, he allows his disciples to reap on the Sabbath.

en + dat. "one [Sabbath]" - [and it happened, came about that he] in / on [the sabbaths]. Temporal use of the preposition, as NIV. The plural use of "sabbaths" is idiomatic.

paraporeuesqai (paraporeuomai) pres. inf. "was going " - to pass by. The infinitive forms a nominal clause, subject of the verb egeneto "it became / happened" = "to pass through the grain-fields on the Sabbath happened" = "One day it happened that he was making his way through fields of corn on the Sabbath day", Cassirer. The accusative subject of the infinitive is auton, "he".

dia + gen. "through" - through. Obviously with the sense "through" in space, as of going through a grain-field. Somewhat redundant, given the para prefix to the infinitive, but usual form

twn sparimwn adj. "grain-fields" - the seed-bearing = grain-fields. The adjective "seed-bearing" is used here as a substantive, "grain-field". The grain would be either wheat, or barley.

poiein (poiew) pres. inf. "walked" - [and the disciples of him began] to make / do [way]. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "to begin". Literally the clause reads "they began to do", probably with the sense "make their way ....", usually shortened to "they began plucking", Taylor. The phrase is possibly descriptive of the disciples pushing their way through the grain-field, and so making a way / path / road for themselves to walk along (cf., Cranfield), although free reaping is only allowed along the edge, and this for the poor and hungry. Gundry argues that the construction is serving to separate the disciples from Jesus, ie., only the disciples are pushing into the grain-field and plucking the heads of wheat / barley. Marcus argues that the phrase is serving to describe the disciples making a way for Jesus, with the allusion to "making a way (the royal way) for the Lord" (overly subtle??). "As the disciples made their way through", Moffatt.

tillonteV (tillw) pres. part. "they began to pick" - picking, plucking [the heads of grain]. The participle is adverbial, probably modal expressing the manner in which they passed through the field. "As the disciples made a path they pulled off heads of grain", Peterson.


autw/ dat. pro. "to him" - [and the pharisees said] to him. Dative of indirect object.

tiv "why" - why [are they doing]. Interrogative use of the pronoun.

o} ouk exestin "what is unlawful" - what is not permitted. "The Pharisees regarded what the disciples were doing as work", Cranfield. That the Pharisees were always present to make negative comments every time Jesus does something controversial, is questioned by some commentators, so Sanders, although given Jesus' controversial ministry, we would expect the religious authorities to keep an eye on him. "What the law prohibits people from doing", TH.

toiV sabbasin (on) dat. "on the Sabbath" - on the sabbaths? The dative is adverbial, temporal / of time. The plural use "sabbaths" is idiomatic.


Jesus now relates the story of when David and his companions ate the loaves of presentation, cf., 1Sam.21:1-7, v25-26. As already noted, Jesus retells the story with some "poetic licence", although Jesus' retelling is probably best described as an authoritative "interpretation of scripture", Boring. Under normal circumstances, a rabbinical argument would only stand where two texts are quoted and these not from a historical book. Jesus' interpretation stands by itself, since it is given under the authority of the Son of Man.

legei (legw) pres. "he answered" - [and] he says. Historic / narrative present used for a dramatic purpose.

autoiV dat. pro. "-" - to them. Dative of indirect object.

oudepote adv. "never" - [have you] never [read]. Rhetorical indicative verb modified by the temporal adverb "never". Obviously they had read, but not understood.

o{te "when" - [what david did] when. Introducing a temporal clause; "when he was in need and hungry", ESV.

oiJ met autou "and his companions" - [he was in need and was hungry, he and] the ones with him? The article oiJ serves as a nominalizer turning the prepositional phrase "with him" into a noun, "the men with him." The preposition meta, "with", expresses association. The doubling up of the "need" possibly reflects "the general tendency by the rabbis to justify David's actions as being from one ravenously hungry whose life was in danger", Guelich. On the other hand, it is possible that "hungry" simply explains the need; "when he found himself in need, and he and his companions were going hungry", Cassirer.


epi + gen. "in the days of" - at, during the time of. Temporal use of the preposition.

Abiaqar gen. "Abiathar" - abiathar. At the time of this story, Ahimelech was actually the high priest. Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, was one of the few who escaped the slaughter perpetrated by Doeg the Edomite. Both Matthew and Luke omit the name, as do some Markan manuscripts. "In the days of" may provide a general designation, rather than a specific one (Possibly "in the section of scripture having to do with Abiathar", Wenham; "in the presence of Abiathar the high priest", Derrett), or it may be a gloss, or possibly Mark (even Jesus??) has made a mistake (so raising the issue of inspiration!). Freedman suggests that in the development of a tradition, as here, a better known name often supplants a lesser known name (Abiathar's importance relates to his association with "the house of God", ie. the temple in Jerusalem, so Gundry, and his association with David, so Marcus).

arcierewV (uV ewV) gen. "the high priest" - high priest. Genitive is apposition to "Abiathar".

pwV "-" - how [he entered into]. In a sense this interrogative particle serves to introduce an epexegetic clause specifying ti, "what" David did, namely, entered the house of God and ate the bread of the Presence. Yet, given its prime use in direct and indirect questions, the interrogative sense is best expressed; "Have you never read what .... how he entered the house of God, in the time of Abiathar the high priest, and ... ?", ESV.

tou qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - [the house] of god. The genitive is adjectival, possessive.

thV proqesewV (iV ewV) gen. "the consecrated [bread]" - [and he ate the bread] of the setting forth, offering. "God" is assumed, bread that is offered, set forth to God, so "consecrated / sacred" bread. The genitive is therefore best treated as adjectival, attributive, limiting "bread", as NIV. The twelve "loaves of presentation to God" were placed on the altar on the Sabbath, and replaced the next Sabbath. The priests ate the replaced bread, cf., Ex.25:30, Lev.24:5-9.

fagein (fagw) aor. inf. "to eat" - [which is not permitted, right] to be eaten. The infinitive serves as a substantive, subject of the negated verb "permitted, allowed"; "to be eaten is not allowed."

ei mh "only for" - except [the priests]. Introducing an exceptive clause expressing a contrast by designating an exception.

kai ..... kai "and [he] also" - and [he gave] and = also. Coordinative and adjunctive; "and ..... also, furthermore, in addition."

toiV .... ou\sin (eimi) dat. pres. part. "to [his] companions" - to the ones being. The participle serves as a substantive, dative of indirect object, ie., David's companions; "and also to those who were with him / to his companions."

sun + dat. "-" - with [him]. Expressing association / accompaniment.


Mark now records the first of two sayings which address the issue of Sabbath observance. This first saying presents as an integral part of what is a typical conflict story. Yet, it is not found in either Matthew or Luke's account of this story. Matthew has "I tell you that there is something here greater than the temple. Don't you know what the Scriptures mean when they say, 'instead of offering sacrifice to me, I want you to be merciful to others'? If you knew what this means, you would not condemn these innocent disciples of mine", Matt.12:6-7. Mark's quoted saying takes a similar line, it encapsulates Jesus' humanitarian interpretation of the Sabbath commandment. Given the scribal traditions surrounding Sabbath law, Jesus' words are indeed radical. It is clear that the Pharisees are unable to accept Jesus' interpretation and consequently view him as a law-breaker and therefore devoid of the one qualification that, in their view, may have indicated that he is the messiah. By setting aside scribal tradition and reinterpreting divine law, Jesus reveals himself as the messiah, the one who brings to fruition God's long awaited Sabbath rest.

autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - [and he said] to them. Dative of indirect object.

dia + acc. "for" - [the sabbath was created, established, came about] because of / on account of. Causal, although here leaning toward benefit, "for the sake of" = "for the benefit of." The second use, dia to sabbaton, "because of / for the Sabbath", is causal without any idea of benefit for.

ton anqrwpon acc. "man" - man [and not man on account of the sabbath]. Manson suggests that "Son of Man", rather than just "man", properly represents the Aramaic. The idea is that the Sabbath was given for Israel alone, and now it is given to Jesus and his disciples - an interesting idea, but not widely accepted. "Man" as "humanity", Cranfield.


This second saying does not present as an integral element of the conflict story about reaping on the Sabbath, although all synoptic gospel record it as the punch-line for this episode. This independent saying probably attached during oral transmission (possibly by Mark) in order to provide a theological perspective on Jesus' right to interpret the Law in the way he has done. "The conclusion to be drawn from this (ie. Jesus' radical interpretation of Sabbath law) is that the Son of man exercises his lordship even over the Sabbath", Cassirer.

Points made by some of the leading commentators are worth considering:

*Taylor, "He who is man's Lord and Representative has authority to determine its laws and use";

*Gundry, "Mark does not want the pericope to end on a humanitarian note, but with an emphasis on Jesus' authority";

*Boring, "the authority by which he [Jesus] authorises his disciples to violate the norms of tradition and Scripture is the climactic self-declaration" ..... of "the unique authority of Jesus";

*Edwards, "By what authority does Jesus contravene Sabbath convention and presume to redefine it? ... True lordship over the Sabbath is invested in the Son of Man";

*Marcus, "The Son of Man is its [the Sabbath] sovereign."

w{ste + ind. "so" - The function of w{ste + ind. here is open to some debate. It is usually consecutive, expressing result, but how is the authority of the Son of Man over the Sabbath a result of the Sabbath being made for man. On rare occasions this construction expresses purpose, "in order that", or likeness, "likewise", but this seems unlikely here. Many who stress a consecutive sense suggest that "son of man" takes its Aramaic sense here, "man / humanity; "the Sabbath was made for man, ...... so as a result man is Lord of the Sabbath." It is very unlikely that Mark intends such an interpretation. Both Luke and Matthew do not include v27, and so do not need to make a link with v28. They may well have noted the confusion caused by the saying in v27 and set it aside from the tradition to enable a proper focus on Jesus.

It seems best to treat this linking conjunction as inferential (even though most of Mark's uses of the conjunction are consecutive), drawing a general logical conclusion to validate an argument. Jesus goes to the heart of Sabbath Law, teaching that it is designed for the enrichment of humanity, for the good of all. Jesus' right to draw out such an interpretation, in defiance of burdensome scribal regulations, rests on his authority as messiah, the coming Son of Man, the one who will reign in glory. "'The Sabbath was made to serve us; we weren't made to serve the Sabbath'. Jesus has the right to teach this interpretation of the Law because the Son of Man exercises his lordship, even over the Sabbath." "He's in charge!" Peterson.

tou anqrwpou "of Man" - [the son] of man. The genitive is adjectival, relational. For the title "Son of Man", see 2:10. Here not just "man" but most likely Daniel's coming "Son of Man" / messiah, the one who takes up authority and rule at the right hand of the Ancient of Days.

kurioV (oV) "Lord" - [is] lord. The capitalising of "lord" in the NIV implies the word is a divine title, but "ruler / master / owner" = "the one who exercises authority" is surely in Jesus' mind.

kai "even" - and = even. Here ascensive; "even".

tou sabbatou (on) gen. "of the Sabbath" - of the sabbath. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / of subordination; "over the Sabbath", Moffatt.


Jesus heals on the Sabbath, v1-6. In this second pronouncement / controversy / healing / miracle story concerning Sabbath observance, Jesus again identifies the failure of religious Israel to see the humanitarian purpose within divine law, and takes to himself the right to both proclaim and perform that purpose. For the Pharisees, Jesus' revisionism is the last straw - he is no messiah, just a Nazarene prone to blasphemy.

palin adv. "another time" - [and he entered] again [into the synagogue]. Temporal adverb.

ecwn (exw) pres. part. "with" - [and there was there a man] having. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "man", "a man was there who had a withered hand."

exhrammenhn (xhrainw) perf. pas. part. "a shrivelled [hand]" - having been withered, dried up. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "hand", "a hand which had been withered"; "disfigured", NLB. The perfect tense is used here to express a past event which has ongoing / permanent results. "A man with a crippled hand", Peterson.

thn ceira (ceir oV) "hand" - the hand. With parts of the body the article indicates possession; "his hand was withered", TH.


parethroun (parathrew) imperf. "some of them were looking" - they were watching intently to see [if on the sabbaths he will heal him]. Of studying someone intently; the prefix para serving to intensify "they were watching." The imperfect being durative expresses the continued action of watching. Not just "people were watching", impersonal, so Taylor, but obviously "the religious authorities." "The Jewish leaders were watching him (intently)", Junkins.

iJna + subj. "for a reason to [accuse Jesus]" - that = in order that [they might accuse]. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that they might accuse him", ie., "so as to get a charge against him", Moffatt.

autou gen. "Jesus" - him. Genitive of direct object after the kata prefix verb "to accuse against."

ei "to see if" - The conjunction here serves to introduce an object clause / dependent statement of indirect question. Usually translated as a dependent statement of perception with the cognitive verb assumed, as NIV, although the syntax implies an indirect question; "they wondered if / whether he would heal him on the Sabbath."

qerapeusei (qerapeuw) fut. "he would heal" - We might expect a durative present tense here, but the future tense is sometimes used with an interrogative ei to express the question that would be in the mind of those who were watching, ie. "will he heal him?", cf. TH / Lagrange. If a person's life was in danger it was accepted that medical care could be administered, but if not, then care should be administered after the Sabbath. Jesus happily overrides such insect law (scribal legalism) with camel law (mercy). "They kept watching to see if Jesus would heal him on the Sabbath", CEV.

toiV sabbasin (on) dat. "on the Sabbath" - The dative is temporal; the plural is idiomatic.


Jesus intentionally uses the handicapped man to make his point by bringing him into the front of the gathered congregation.

tw/ anqrwpw/ (oV) dat. "to the man" - [he says] to the man. Dative of indirect object.

tw/ .... econti (exw) dat. pres. part. "with" - the one having [the withered hand]. The articular participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "man", dative in agreement with "man"; "the man who had the withered hand" - "the man who had the deformed hand."

egeire eiV to meson "stand up in front of everyone" - rise into the middle. Luke's egeire kai sthqi eiV to meson, "arise and stand into [in] the middle [of the gathering]", is somewhat more instructive than Mark's short talk. Of course, Luke may have misread Mark, eg., "rise and come forward", Moffatt (assuming Luke used Mark rather than existing oral tradition!!).


Given that the law is designed for good (it is humanitarian), then the logic of Jesus question is that "to refuse to do good is to do evil; and it could not be right to do evil on the Sabbath", Plummer. The religious authorities remain silent because, given their legalist understanding of the law, they are unable to answer the question. The fact that their logic has forced them into a corner should prompt a reassessment of basic principles and a recognition that Jesus' humanitarian approach to law has something in it - that the Sabbath may have indeed been made for man. Their unwillingness to rethink their position rightly prompts Jesus' orgh, "anger".

autoiV dat. pro. "them" - [and he says] to them. Dative of indirect object.

exestin pres. "which is lawful" - [is] it lawful, right, permissible, allowed. The subject of the verb "it is lawful" consists of the four substantive infinitives, "to do good / to do evil / to save / to destroy"; "to help or to hurt, to save life or to kill", Barclay. The presence of the particle h], "or", indicates a question, as NIV.

toiV sabbasin (on) dat. "on the Sabbath" - Dative of time.

poihsai (poiew) aor. inf. "to do [good]" - to do [good or to do evil, to restore life or destroy]. This infinitive, together with "to do evil", "to save [life]" and "to kill", stands as the subject of the verb "it is right / lawful."

de "but" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative, here to a change in referent. Here obviously adversative.

esiwpwn (siwpaw) imperf. "they remained silent" - they were silent. The imperfect, being durative, expresses ongoing action, as NIV. The article oiJ, "they", specifies the subject, namely, the authorities. "No one made a sound", Junkins.


So, Jesus does good and heals the man. The Pharisees, on the other hand, do evil; they plan Jesus' assassination. They should have taken note of Jesus' question and observed the flaw in their logic.

peribleyamenoV (periblepw) aor. part. "he looked around" - [and] having looked around at [them]. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "said", although it may be treated as adverbial, temporal, "then he looked around [upon]." A nice descriptive, such that we can imagine Jesus doing the sweeping stare.

met (meta) "with / in" - with [anger]. Here, the prepositional phrase "with anger" is likely adverbial, modal, expressing the manner of Jesus' looking around, "angrily"; "wrathfully", TH. Further describing Jesus' reaction; the looking is not overly friendly! "His gaze swept around them and there was anger in his eyes", Barclay.

sullupoumenoV (sullupew) pres. pas. part. "deeply distressed" - being distressed, grieved. The participle is adverbial, modal, also expressing the manner of Jesus' looking around, "he looked around with anger and grief"; "being grieved on account of the callousness of their minds", Cassirer. The presence of the prefix sun would imply "grieve with" = "sympathise", Cranfield, so Taylor, but "grieving along with" is not how the context has it, but rather sullupoumenoV epi, "grieved at." The orgh, "anger", is not just anger, annoyance, but rather a grieving anger driven by a feeling of hurt at the inhumanity of the religious officials; a mixture of "anger and sorrow", REB. These human qualities describe the nature of Jesus, not just his humanity, since the divine is not devoid of feelings.

epi + dat. "at" - upon. Here causal; "on the basis of / because of" = "at [the blindness, insensitivity]."

thV kardiaV (a) gen. "hearts" - [the hardness] of the heart [of them]. The genitive is adjectival, attributive, limiting "hearts"; "hard hearts" = "impervious minds", although usually classified as verbal, objective, the heart being the object of the hardening. "He sensed their inhumanity", Phillips; "their obstinacy", Moffatt.

tw/ anqrwpw/ (oV) dat. "to the man" - [he says] to the man [stretch out the hand, and he stretched out]. Dative of indirect object.

apekatestaqh (apokaqisthmi) aor. pas. "was completely restored" - [and the hand of him] was restored, returned to its original soundness. The aorist expressing completed action, as NIV.


exelqonteV (exercomai) aor. part. "then [the Pharisees] went out" - [and] going out. Attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the verb "giving [counsel against] / held [council]", or possibly adverbial, temporal, as NIV; "after they went out". The implied subject is obviously "the Pharisees" and their "going out" refers to their going out of the synagogue. "Upon this, [the Pharisees ...] made their exit", Cassirer.

euquV "-" - [the pharisees] immediately. Temporal adverb. "Immediately" indicates that the Pharisees started plotting Jesus' murder on the Sabbath, which work is unlawful, cf., v4. Note that Herod's party was a political grouping, not religious, but it would be necessary for the Pharisees to get them on side if they were to make a move against Jesus. There is only limited evidence available for the existence of this political grouping and it is interesting that Mark would mention them, given that they would be less than a distant memory with the passing of Herod. See Guelich for a discussion on this issue. "At once joined the Herodians", Moffatt.

sumboulion edidoun "and began to plot" - caused a consultation, held counsel, planed. In general terms "they took counsel / plotted", ie., they are functioning as "assassins", Gundry. The imperfect is possibly inceptive, as NIV; "they started making plans", CEV.

meta + gen. "with" - with [the herodians]. Expressing association.

kata + gen. "-" - against [him]. Here expressing opposition; "against".

o{pwV + subj. "how [they might kill Jesus]" - as to how [they might destroy him]. Here the conjunction serves to introduce an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech after the verb "giving [counsel against]", while at the same time expressing in what manner the Pharisees might be able to bring about Jesus' death; "how ...." Since this construction can replace iJna + subj. it is possible that a purpose clause is intended, such that the Pharisees consulted with the Herodians, a political group they would have little respect for, "in order to kill Jesus." This is the first mention of Jesus' opponents wanting to kill him. Literally "destroy", so "kill", but better, "assassinate".


Mark Introduction



[Pumpkin Cottage]