The Ministry of Messiah, 2:1-12:50
4. Jesus the bread of life, 6:1-71
ii] Bread from heavenSynopsis
The crowd, having confirmed that Jesus is no longer in the vicinity where the feeding of the 5,0000 had taken place, embark and cross over to the west side of the lake looking for him. They are somewhat confused, wondering how he was able to get to the other side of the lake, given that he didn't leave with his disciples. Jesus questions their enthusiasm, making the comment that they have come after him for more free food and not because they are prompted by the sign-nature of the feeding. Jesus then calls on them to work for a food that does not rot away, a food for eternal life, a food that requires the work of faith. The crowd then asks Jesus for a further divine sign to authenticate his person, something like the manna Moses gave the children of Israel. Jesus points out that manna was from God, just as he, the bread of life, is from God.
God in Christ (the Son of Man) provides a food that endures forever, a food that enlivens those who feed on it. Feeding is believing, the food is the Word, and life is the result.
i] Context: See 6:1-21. Following the feeding of the five thousand, John presents a short introductory narrative, v22-24, followed by the discourse proper, Jesus the True Bread of Life, v25-71. The discourse presents as follows:
Part 1, v25-33: Drawing on Sinai imagery, manna from heaven, John introduces us to the bread from heaven, "a food that endures to eternal life";
Part 2, v34-51: Jesus is the living bread, the bread of life, a new life through faith in Jesus;
Part 3, v52-59; Jesus is both the bread and the giver of the bread, he gives himself, the flesh and blood of the Son of Man - "whoever feeds on this bread will live forever."
Part 4, v60-71; The chapter concludes with an epilogue; a narrative on those abandoning Jesus, v60-66, and for those who stay, a reflection on Jesus' teaching, v67-71. Jesus' words are "Spirit and life", and they are realized through faith.
Anyone addressing the Bread of Life discourse is immediately confronted by its lack of logical sequence - is the argument circular, linear, parallel, ..... or what? When the commentators are consulted we immediately discover that nearly all have their own take on the progress of the argument. John seems to have presented us with a rambling homily that is devoid of formal structure.
Dodd opts for three parts, v26-34, 35-50, 51-59, and an epilogue, v60-71. Other commentators also go for three parts, but divide them up differently, eg., Lindars, v26-31, 32-40, 41-51, or Carson, v27-34, v35-48, v49-58. Schurmann argues for two parts, v26-51, 52-58. Again, others commentators agree, but disagree on how to divide up the two parts.
Leenhardt, also Beasley-Murray, divides the whole passage into three thematic parts, v22-35, 36-47, 48-71 - The bread from heaven, The true subjects of the true messianic king, and The departure and coming of the Son of Man.
It seems more likely that the structure hangs off the questions and statements directed to Jesus, and his answers, ie., an interrogation-response form of discourse:
#1. "Rabbi, when did you get here?" v25:
"do not work for food that spoils, but for food that endures to eternal life", v26-27.
#2. "What must we do to do the works God requires", v28:
"believe in the one he has sent.", v29.
#3. "What sign will you give? .... He (Moses) gave them bread from heaven to eat", v30.
"the bread of God is the bread that comes down from heaven and gives life to the world", v31-33.
#4. "Always give us this bread", v34:
"whoever comes to me will never go hungry ...believes ... shall have eternal life ...", v35-40.
#5. "How can he say that he came down from heaven?", v41-42:
"I am the bread of life (not manna) .... Whoever eats (comes / believes) this bread will live forever", v43-51.
#6. "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?", v52;
"Your ancestors ate manna and died, but whoever feeds (= believes) on this bread (my flesh / my blood = my sacrifice) will live forever", v53-59.
#7. "This is a hard teaching. Who can accept it?", v60;
"the Spirit gives life .... The words I have spoken .... are full of the Spirit and life. Yet there are some ... who do not believe", v61-67.
#8. "Do you want to go away as well?", v67. "Lord, to whom shall we go?" v68:
"have I not chosen you ..?" v69-71.
Note that some commentators argue that v61-71 work off the Jesus Walks on Water narrative.
ii] Structure: Bread from heaven:
The crowd finds its way to Jesus, v22-24;
The discourse proper - "He gave them bread .....", v25-59:
A food that endures to eternal life, v25-33;
Jesus provides the life-giving food, v34-51;
Jesus' sacrifice is the life-giving food, v52-59.
John places this discourse in the synagogue at Capernaum. Although often interpreted as either a pro, or anti, theological exposition of the Lord's Supper, we are on far safer ground if we see it as an evangelistic homily where Jesus' teachings are shaped for a gospel presentation to Hellenistic Jews (Jews of the dispersion). The discourse is certainly evangelistic in nature, and it builds on the sign of the feeding of the five thousand, cf., Morris. The feeding of the five thousand reflects the imagery of Israel's divine feeding with manna during the wilderness wanderings. John tells us that Jesus provides new manna in his own person and that those who feed on him, in the sense of believe on him, will possess life eternal. The focus of that feeding / believing is Christ's sacrificial death, hence John's setting in the context of the Passover.
The interrogation-response format proceeds as follows:
John first establishes the setting and the mood of the crowd, before moving us to question / statement #1, pote w|de genonaV, "when did you come here? Jesus responds to the crowd's desire for a free feed, suggesting they should work for a food that will last them for life eternal.
This leads us to question / statement #2 - ti poiwmen, "what work?" - a typically nomist response! Jesus explains that the work God requires is to believe in the one he has sent - the law of faith / belief in Christ.
This leads to question / statement #3, ti poieiV su shmeion, "what sign do you do?" If "the Jews" (Israel's religious establishment) are to believe that Jesus is God's messiah, the Christ, the one sent from God, then he has to do something comparable to the Mosaic sign of manna, given that it was believed that the messiah would actually repeat this Mosaic sign before ushering in the new age of the kingdom. Given what has just transpired, we have here a classic example of Johannine irony! As Mary Poppins said, Some people can't see past their nose. Instead of moving back and explaining the obvious, Jesus reminds them of the simple fact that the bread Moses provided only sustained for a moment, but the bread that God the Father provides is life-giving bread.
This statement moves the discourse to question / statement #4, doV hJmin ton arton touton, "give us this bread."
Jesus' exegesis of the text "He gave them bread from heaven to eat", v31-32. Jesus makes two points: First, don't read "he" to mean Moses, but rather "my Father"; Second, don't read "gave" as a past tense, but rather as a present tense, "gives." The true, or probably better "real" bread from heaven, is available now for the eating. The idea of eating heavenly bread in the present is developed in the rest of the chapter. The eating is described figuratively as eating Jesus who is the bread from heaven. This inevitably involves eating his words which simply entails receiving / believing his words. In coming to Jesus, receiving Jesus, believing in Jesus as the Christ (the word / gospel), a person receives the life giving Spirit and thus inherits eternal life.
The eucharistic overtones in John chapter 6. It is doubtful whether John writes these words with an eye to the eucharist, but clearly this chapter has served as a source for liturgical images. For example, Bishop Cranmer in his construction of the Lord's Supper in the English Book of Common Prayer instructs the participants to "feed on him in your hearts by faith with thanksgiving." The idea of feeding by faith comes from this chapter, although John's sense of Jesus' words is that feeding is but a symbol for the act of believing. This, of course, was Zwingli's point, against Calvin. Cranmer followed Calvin's notion of a spiritual feeding on the body and blood of Christ by faith, which idea had little scriptural merit in the eyes of Zwingli and his followers. See Carson's short summary of the discourse for "sacramental" interpretations of this passage, p277.
iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.
Text - 6:22
The setting - the crowd finds its way to Jesus, v22-24. These verses serve as a transition to the Bread of Life discourse from the feeding of the five thousand and Jesus' walking on water. The scene details the crowd's realization that Jesus is no longer in the vicinity. On the day following the feeding, part of the crowd embark in boats that have arrived from Tiberias, and on landing at Capernaum, they seek out Jesus for another Moses-like feeding of Manna. The crowd is still puzzled as to how Jesus has gotten from the Eastern shore of the lake to the North Western shore, given that the disciples had left in the last available boat. Their question "when" includes the "how". Interestingly, there is a range of textual variants for these verses, either additions, or alterations, all geographical fixes which would have bemused John.
Verses 22-24 do not read well in that v23 serves as a parenthetical explanation. John needs to explain how it is that the crowd is unable to follow the disciples when they set off by boat, but then on the next day they are able to follow by boat. Presumably the strong wind experienced by the disciples has blown some fishing boats onto the eastern shore of lake Tiberias.
th/ epaurion "the next day" - on the morrow. The article serves as a nominalizer, the dative being temporal; "on the next day." Often these little statements are used to introduce a new episode rather than detail an exact time sequence.
oJ esthkwV (iJsthmi) perf. part. "that had stayed" - [the crowd] the one having stood. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "crowd"; "the crowd which had remained on the far side of the lake."
peran + gen. "on the opposite shore" - beyond, across [the sea]. Spacial: "on the other side of the sea", Berkeley.
eidon aor. "realized" - saw. The verse is a single sentence controlled by this verb. The tense doesn't make sense so the word is best translated as a pluperfect, "they had seen / observed / realized", cf. NEB.
oJti "that" - Here introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what they realized.
ploiarion "boat" - [another] little boat [was not there]. The diminutive form, "little", is not used when the/a boat is referred to later in the verse. Presumably the same boat is intended.
ei mh "-" - if not = except [one]. Introducing an exceptive clause, expressing a contrast by designating an exception. Lit. "there was not there another boat except one" = "there had only been one boat there", Barclay.
oJti "and that" - [and] that. As oJti above.
toiV maqhtaiV (hV ou) dat. "[Jesus had not entered it with his] disciples" - [jesus did not come with] the disciples [of him into the boat]. Dative of direct object of the sun prefix verb "to enter with" / association, accompaniment, as NIV.
alla "but" - but [only the disciples of him departed]. Strong adversative serving in a counterpoint construction; "not ..... but ....." "But the disciples had embarked by themselves."
ek + gen. "[some boats] from [Tiberias]" - [other boats] from [tiberias came near the place]. Expressing source / origin, "from", or separation, "away from." The meaning is obscure. Had the boats come from Tiberias to near the place where the feeding took place, or was Tiberias near the place?
ton arton (oV) "the bread" - [where they ate] the bread. It is no longer loaves, but "bread". This could be taken as a eucharistic allusion, but that is unlikely.
eucaristhsantoV (eucaristw) gen. aor. part. "after [the Lord] had given thanks" - [the lord] having given thanks. The genitive participle with the genitive noun "the Lord" forms a genitive absolute construction, best taken as temporal; "after the Lord's thanksgiving", Moffatt. Again, another possible eucharistic allusion, but not found in a number of manuscripts and so possibly an addition. Left out by NJB. The clause may go with the verb "came [from Tiberias]" but most translators opt for the verb "they ate". "When the Lord gave thanks", NAB.
oun "-" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection; "so, when the crowd saw ...", ESV.
oJte "once" - when [the crowd saw]. The temporal conjunction serves to introduce a temporal clause.
oJti "that" - that [jesus is not there, nor the disciples of him]. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception expressing what the crowd realized. Following accepted form, the tense used at the time of speaking is used in the statement, ie., present tense.
enebhsan (embainw) "got into the boats" - they embarked [into the boats]. "Embarked in the boats which came from Tiberias."
zhtounteV (zhtew) pres. part. "in search of [Jesus]" - [and came to capernaum] seeking [Jesus]. The participle is adverbial, possibly final, expressing purpose; "and went to Capernaum in order to look for Jesus."
The Bread of Life discourse, v25-71: i] A food that endures to eternal life, v25-33. # 1. "When did you get here?" As in the Nicodemus discourse, Jesus ignores the question "when did you get here?", v25, and launches into the real issue facing the crowd. Although the crowd has witnessed, or at least heard of the miraculous feeding, their response is to seek another full belly rather than discover the meaning of the sign, a sign which points to a food that does not spoil, a food that endures to eternal life. In v27 Jesus points out that instead of striving for food that does not last, it is far better to strive for eternal food, a food that enlivens. Jesus is divinely authorized to provide this food.
euJronteV (euJriskw) aor. part. "when they found" - [and] having found [him]. The Participle is adverbial, best taken as introducing a temporal clause, as NIV.
peran thV qalasshV "on the other side of the lake" - across the sea. Capernaum is on the North Western shore of lake Galilee, while Tiberias is on the Western shore, so "across the sea" doesn't really fit. It is unclear where the feeding took place, but most opt for the Eastern shore. "Across the sea" also serves to underline the miracle of walking on water. Jesus didn't just walk around the edge.
rabbi "Rabbi" - teacher. A title of respect.
autw/ dat. "[they asked] him" - [they said] to him. Dative of indirect object.
pote "when [did you get here]?" - when [did you become here]? Temporal interrogative particle. The question probably combines both "when" and "how"; "How did you get here"?
autoiV dat. pro. "-" - [Jesus answered and said] to them. Dative of indirect object. John uses the usual Aramaic construction, "answered and said", although usually "answering said" in the synoptics.
amhn amhn legw uJmin "I tell you the truth / very truly I tell you" - truly truly I say to you. Used to introduce an important statement, cf., 5:24.
ouc oJti "not because" - [you are seeking me] not because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the crowd is looking for Jesus.
shmeia (on) "miraculous signs" - [you saw] signs. Accusative direct object of the verb "to see." "Not because you saw my signs", Phillips.
all (alla) "but [because]" - Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction, "not .... but". Here the construction is causal, "not because ....... but because ....."
ek + gen. "[you ate the loaves]" - [you ate] from [the loaves, bread]. Serving here instead of a partitive genitive; "but because you ate of the loaves."
ecortasqhte (cortazw) aor. pas. "had your fill" - [and] were satisfied (resulting in a state of being satisfied* - eaten your fill, had enough). The word was originally used of gross feeding of animals. Jesus implies that the crowd is just after the food, yet they are aware that the feeding is miraculous 6:14. Of course, not all those present on this occasion were present at the feeding. Many had heard of the miracle, but had not participated in it, so most of the crowd may well have just wanted full bellies. None-the-less, the real problem is that the crowd fails to see the significance of the miracle and so fails to identify the true nature of the person performing it. "Because you had all the bread you wanted to eat", NJB.
Jesus is the divine manna, so strive for the food that he gives, a good food that endures forever.
ergazesqe (ergazomai) mh pres. imp. "do not work for" - do not work for. Here in the sense of "do not strive after." With this particular negative the imperative may serve as a command to stop an action already commenced; "stop trying to earn", Barrett.
thn apollumenhn (apollumi) "[food] that spoils" - [the food] perishing. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "food". This is the food that is produced by working, and is a food that does not last.
alla "but" - Strong adversative standing in a counterpoint construction, "not ..... but ......"
thn menousan (menw) "[the food] that endures" - [the food] abiding, remaining. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "food"; "a food that lasts."
eiV "to [eternal life]" - Spacial, metaphorical, expressing direction of action and arrival at; "The food which suffers no change but remains in the man as a principle of power issuing in eternal life", Westcott. The idea is obviously similar to the spring of water that wells up into eternal life, but is not easily expressed. Is it a food that "lasts through life", Berkeley, "gives eternal life", Barclay, or "means eternal life", Moffatt?
oJ uiJoV tou anqrwpou "[which] the Son of Man [will give]" - The genitive "of man" is adjectival, of relationship. Jesus again uses his favoured messianic title (Daniel's mysterious Son of Man), a tile unrecognized by the crowd (the phrase can just mean "man"); cf., 1:51.
uJmin dat. pro. "you" - to you. Dative of indirect object.
gar "for" - Introducing a causal clause explaining why the Son of Man is able / authorized to give food / eternal life.
esfragisen (sfragizw) aor. "set his seal of approval" - [god the father] certified. Possibly meaning to demonstrate by authentic proof the truth or validity of something, but more likely meaning to put a mark on something, to indicate ownership but possibly also to mark group identity*. Westcott suggests that the Son of Man is consecrated to the divine office of sacrifice. So, rather than sealed with God's approval, the sense here may be consecrated to God's service. Probably, certified, or authorized, is better. Jesus is divinely authorized to give the bread of life. "God the Father has given him the right to do so", CEV.
#2. "What must we do?" - believe, v28-29: The question from the crowd at least implies that some of them understand that Jesus is offering a spiritual food that lasts forever. They want to know what God requires of them to obtain this food, probably in the sense of law-obedience. They have no idea that Jesus is himself doing all that is required, and that they need only ask for the benefit. God's requirement of the crowd has nothing to do with doing, rather, he requires only believing "in the one he has sent" - faith in the Word of God. The gospel, encapsulated in this discourse, proclaims that Jesus is the provider of a spiritual food "whose properties are such that those who eat it will never hunger again", Bruce.
oun "then" - therefore. Transitional, as NIV, or inferential, establishing a logical connection, "so".
ti poiwmen (poiew) pres. subj. "what must we do" - [they said to him] what may we do. Deliberative subjunctive. "What is to be our regular course of action", Morris.
iJna + subj. "to" - that. Introducing a purpose clause. "In order to do."
ergazwmeqa (ergazomai) aor. subj. "do [the works]" - we may work [the works]. Bultman suggests that the crowd has no understanding of what Jesus is talking about, yet their question does imply some understanding. Their stress is likely on "perform" the works rather than on Jesus' sense of "strive after" a gift. The crowd would certainly not understand that God performs the work to provide the food for eternal life, a food that they need only ask for / eat (receive, believe Jesus, or more specifically, believe Jesus' words). "In order that we may perform the works willed by God."
tou qeou (oV) "God requires" - of god. The genitive is usually treated as verbal, subjective, "the works which God requires / desires / wills of us." So, "what must we do in order to perform the works required by God?" See "of God" below.
to ergon (on) "the work" - [jesus answered and said to them, this is] the work. Predicate nominative. Note how "the work" is now singular.
tou qeou (oV) gen. "of God" - of god. The genitive is adjectival, classified either as objective, God receives the action (our "spiritual labor", Lindars), or subjective, God produces the action (the work God demands, or his work accomplished in Jesus such that those who believe in him (eat him [figuratively of course]) receive the gift of eternal life). It can be argued that it is plenary, ie., both objective and subjective. As a subjective genitive one could argue that not only is the possibility of life through faith a work of God, in the sense that he makes it possible, but that also the response of faith itself is God's work in that he gives faith to those he calls ("no man comes to me, except the Father..... draw him"). Given the context, a simple idiomatic / objective sense is probably the intended sense where the genitive "of God" limits "work", "the work which God requires of you." "God wants you to have faith in the one he sent", CEV.
iJna + subj. "to [believe]" - that [you may believe]. The hina clause is epexegetic/appositional in that it explains/defines "is this"; "the work of God is this, namely, that you believe ...." Since "may believe" is a present continuous, the intention may be "a life of faith/believing."
eiV "in [the one]" - into. Spacial, metaphorical, expressing direction of action and arrival at / goal, end-view. Note how belief in Jesus is expressed by either the preposition eiV, "into", or en, "in".
ekeinoV pro. "the one [he has sent]" - [whom] that one [sent]. The demonstrative pronoun, nominative subject of the verb "to send", refers to God the Father and serves as an emphatic personal pronoun.
#3. "What sign will you give?" - v30-33. It is interesting how the crowd, having just witnessed the feeding of the 5,000, asks for a sign. Obviously, the feeding is not proof enough of Jesus' divine authority; they want a true Exodus sign, the sign of manna. In the eyes of the crowd the giving of manna authenticated Moses' authority and a similar sign would authenticate Jesus' authority. "Upon Jesus' stipulation that they believe in him, the Jews, in customary fashion, ask for a sign authenticating his authority", Kostenberger. The quote is uncertain and may come from either Neh.9:15, or Ps.78:24. Jesus explains the quotation in typical Jewish fashion. He makes two points: First, don't read "he" to mean Moses, but rather "my Father"; Second, don't read "gave" as a past tense, but rather as a present tense, "gives." The true bread, or probably better the "real" bread from heaven, is available now for the eating. Jesus goes on to break open this idea: First, the bread is "of God", in the sense of originating with God; it is his bread; Second, the bread is "he who" or "that which" comes down from heaven rather than is sent. The crowd thinks the bread is impersonal (v34), but in v35 Jesus says he is the bread. Of course, the bread is both, as Jesus is both person and Word; Third, the bread is life-possessing and life-giving.
oun "so" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection, "so", or drawing a logical conclusion, "thus, therefore."
autw/ dat. pro. "[they asked] him" - [they said] to him. Dative of indirect object.
oun "then" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection; "so what sign do you do?"
su "you" - [what sign do] you [perform]. The "you" is emphatic.
iJna + subj. "that" - that [we may see]. Introducing a purpose clause, "in order that."
pisteuswmen (pisteuw) aor. subj. "believe" - [and] may believe. The sense is probably "believe in you", Barclay, NJB, although a cursory "believe you", Moffatt, is possible.
soi dat. pro. "you" - Dative of direct object after the verb "to believe."
ti ergazh/ pres. ind. "[what] will you do?" - [what] do you work, perform, do? As noted above, Jesus has already fed the 5,000, but that may not carry much weight with the makeup of the crowd as it is now. It is also clear that the "miraculous sign", in the mind of the crowd, is the provision of "heavenly food", namely, manna. Jesus can be trusted if he can perform a real sign, rather than a conjuring trick; such would authenticate his authority. "You are telling others to perform, but what performance will you undertake to support your claim and thus enable us to trust you?"
hJmwn gen. pro. "Our" - [the fathers] of us. The genitive is adjectival, relational.
oiJ patereV (hr roV) "forefathers" - Our ancestors.
to manna "the Manna" - [ate] the manna [in the wilderness]. Accusative direct object of the verb "to eat." Cf., Ex.16. A defining miracle in the eyes of the Jews. It was later spiritualized, becoming a symbol for God's heavenly word, particularly the law, spiritual teaching, and of the blessings of the age to come. "Divine and miraculous food."
kaqw "as" - as. Comparative conjunction used to introduce a comparative clause.
estin gegrammenon (grafw) perf. mid. / pas. part. "it is written" - it has been written. Perfect periphrastic construction, often used to introduce a quote from scripture. The reference is unclear, but probably either from Neh.9:15, or Ps.78:24.
fagein (esqiw) aor. inf. "to eat" - [bread from heaven he gave them] to eat. The infinitive is adverbial, probably expressing purpose, "in order to eat."
oun "-" - therefore. Inferential, establishing a logical connection; "So, given that they had failed to understand the true nature of the bread from heaven, Jesus again addressed them. 'Truly, truly, I say to you .......'"
ou dedwken (didwmi) perf. "[it is] not [Moses who] has given" - [moses] has not given [the bread from heaven to you]. The Perfect tense expresses the continuity of the action; "Moses never ever gave you."
ek + gen. "from" - out of, from. Expressing source / origin, as NIV.
all (alla) "but" - Strong adversative used in a counterpoint construction, "not ..... but ....."
didwsin (didwmi) pres. "gives"- [the father of me] gives [you]. The present tense, being durative, expresses ongoing action. "It is my Father who is giving you the real bread", Barclay.
alhqinon adj. "true" - [the] true, genuine, real [bread from heaven]. The position of the adjective is emphatic.
gar "for" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why it is not Moses who gives the bread from heaven, but rather God, namely, because the bread of God is the one that comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.
tou qeou (oV) gen. "[the bread] of God" - The genitive here may be classified as ablative, expressing source / origin, "bread from God", although to the Semitic mind an adjectival sense is more likely, possibly possessive, so Novakovic, although given v32, source / origin is dominant, so attributive, idiomatic, "the bread which God gives is the one coming down ....." A classification of subjective, "the bread supplied by God", Harris, is possible, although "bread" is not a verbal noun.
oJ katabainwn (katabainw) pres. part. "that comes down" - [is] the one coming down [out of / from heaven]. As with "the one giving", the participle serves as a substantive, predicate nominative of the verb to-be. It can be either personal, "he who comes down", or impersonal, "that which comes down." In v34 the crowd takes it as impersonal, possibly in a figurative sense - a spiritual bread that gives life, a real bread from heaven, a spiritual manna. John is probably happy to allow the participle to carry either a personal, or impersonal sense, although impersonal seems more likely, given the crowd's response, and this followed by Jesus' self disclosure in v35. It is in v35 where Jesus proclaims that he is this real bread from heaven, he is the life-giving bread, or more particularly, his words are this life-giving bread in that he is the Word from God. "For the bread of God which comes down from heaven gives life to the world", Phillips.
didouV (didwmi) pres. part. "gives" - [and is] the one giving [life]. The participle as above; "the bread of God is the one coming down from heaven and is the one giving life to the world." The present tense indicating the ongoing action of life-giving. Christ is the one who comes down and gives. Note that we have another example of Granville Sharp's rule where the single article associates the two participles "coming down" and "giving [life]."
tw/ kosmw/ (oV) "to the world" - The world of human habitation.