Entering the promised land, 11:1-16:20

4. Victory, 14:1-15:39

i] The anointing


Mark introduces the passion narrative by contrasting the devotion of an unnamed woman, with the deceitfulness of the religious authorities along with the disloyalty of one of Jesus' disciples. It is now Wednesday, two days before the Passover and Jesus' crucifixion. In the afternoon, the Chief priests and scribes meet to plan a secret arrest of Jesus away from public gaze. That evening, while Jesus is eating in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman breaks open a jar of perfumed oil and sets about pouring it over his head. Some of those present comment that the ointment could have been sold and the money given to the poor, but Jesus points out it is an act of great kindness - "she has anointed my body beforehand for its burial." Following the meal, Judas leaves and goes to the chief priests to plan Jesus' arrest, and this on the promise of payment.


Be reminded! The way of salvation is by reliance on the substitutionary death of Jesus.


i] Context: See Mark 1:1-8. Victory, 14:1-16:8: As David overcame Goliath, so Jesus the Son of God overcomes Satan upon the cross of Calvary. With the enemy destroyed, the prisoners are released from their bondage of sin and death, and the king enters his rest. The new age has dawned, the kingdom has come with power.

A number of commentators have noted Mark's carful construction of the passion narrative, cf., Marcus. Mark presents two main narratives followed by a conclusion:

Jesus and his disciples, 14:1-52;

Jesus and his opponents, 14:53-15:47;

Conclusion - the resurrection, 16:1-8.

Each of the two main scenes has three sub-scenes, the first sub-scene a three-scene sandwich, is followed by two lots of two.

France makes particular note of this first Markan "sandwich" built around the Passover: v1a, the Passover is coming, and v12ff, preparing for the Passover. Within the Passover festival and its sacrificial meal, there sits "the extravagant love and loyalty of one of the least of his followers."


ii] Structure: The anointing:

A1. The plot against Jesus, v1-2;

B. The anointing, v3-9;

A2. The treachery of Judas, v10-11.


Note how the anointing is emphasised by this Markan sandwich


iii] Interpretation:

From Mark's account of Jesus' entry into Jerusalem onward, we are presented with the theme of Jesus' knowledge and determination to comply with the divine will - Jesus' death is framed within the sovereign will of God, which fact he prophesies and sets his face toward. Mark draws out this theme in his account of the anointing of Jesus, setting the story within the religious authorities' plot to kill Jesus and the compliance of Judas to that end. The devotion of the woman is set within the plotting of the righteous and the betrayal of a disciple - faith and treachery.

The substantive truth revealed in the story is found in v9. The exact intent of Jesus' words is somewhat unclear due to the Gk., but the point seems to be that, along with the gospel, what this woman did will also be proclaimed and so serve as a reminder from her of the way of salvation, namely, of reliance on the substitutionary death of Christ.


iv] Synoptics:

The plan to arrest Jesus, v1-2: Matt.26:1-5, Lk.22:1-2, Jn.11:45-53.

The anointing at Bethany, v3-9: Matt.26:6-13, Lk.7:36-50, Jn.12:1-8.

Judas plans to betray Jesus, 10-11: Matt.26:14-16, Lk.22:3-6.


The story of the anointing is recorded in all four gospels. Matthew's account is very similar to Mark's, while both John and Luke present interesting differences to that of Mark's account. Luke sets the story during Jesus' ministry rather than at the Passover, and it is set in the house of Simon the Pharisee, not Simon the man with a skin disease. The woman is "a sinner" rather than just "a woman", and she weeps on Jesus' feet, dries them with her hair and then anoints his feet, rather than anoints his head with oil. Jesus is critical of Simon rather than just generally angry, and forgives the woman rather than defends her. John, on the other hand, says that the event took place six days before the Passover, not two, and that the woman is Mary of Bethany. John says that the ointment weighed a pound, and that it was Jesus' feet which were anointed rather than his head, and that Judas is the one who gets angry rather than "some who were there" (disciples??). Unlike Luke, John records the two sayings referring to Jesus' burial and the poor, but reverses Mark's order.

These fascinating differences can probably be put down to differences in the source tradition along with the particular intent of the author. Brown suggests that two similar stories were carried in the oral tradition, a repentant woman who weeps at Jesus' feet (Luke) and a woman who anoints Jesus' head, and that there has been some melding of the stories during their transmission. This seems very likely. Such an idea always touches on the issue of scriptural authority, but it seems best to accept that in the end, scripture is inspired such that the truth revealed by the different authors is God's word to us.


v] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage can be found in the pew-level sermon notes The Anointing.

Text - 14:1

The countdown, v1-11: i] The plot by the religious authorities, v1-2. The die is cast in that the religious authorities have decided to act against Jesus, planning to seize him and put him to death. They are aware of Jesus' popularity and so plan to arrest him away from public gaze. All they need is the opportunity. Mark tells us that it is the Wednesday before the commencement of the Passover on Thursday evening.

de "now" - but/and. Transitional, identifying a step in the narrative; paragraph marker.

to pasca "the Passover" - [it was] the passover. Nominative subject of the verb to-be. Probably here the passover meal is meant, prepared on the afternoon of 14 Nisan and eaten between sunset and midnight of 15 Nisan.

ta azuma (oV) "the feast of / festival of unleavened bread" - [and] the unleavened bread. "Feast of" implied. Celebrated between 15 and 21 Nisan and by now virtually part of the Passover festival.

meta + acc." were only [two days] away" - after [two days]. Temporal use of the preposition. The timing here is difficult to work out, given that the new day begins at sunset and that a phrase like this could mean "tomorrow / the next day" (the count can include today). It probably means "tomorrow evening". Counting to the feast of Unleavened Bread is further complicated because the first day of the feast is sometimes reckoned as 14 Nisan, the killing of the lambs. None-the-less, the day of the anointing is likely to be Wednesday, Nisan 13.

ezhtoun (zhtew) imperf. "were looking / scheming" - [and the chief priests and the scribes] were seeking, searching. The imperfect giving a durative sense, "a purpose entertained for some time", Taylor, although the imperfect is sometimes used when providing background information.

pwV + subj. "for some [sly] way" - in what way / how. The interrogative particle serves to introduce a dependent statement of perception expressing what looking for, namely, "looking for a way to", Zerwick.

krathsanteV (kratew) aor. part. "to arrest" - having sized, taken hold of, grasped [him]. Usually treated as an attendant circumstance participle expressing action accompanying the subjunctive verb "to kill"; "how to arrest him by stealth and kill him", ESV. Decker suggests it is more likely adverbial, so possibly temporal, "before they kill him.".

en + dat. "-" - in, by [deceit, guile]. Possibly instrumental, expressing means; "through, by means of" = "by some clever manoeuvre" = "were scheming", TNIV; "the chief priests and scribes plotted how they might arrest and execute Him through treachery", Berkeley. Yet, adverbial, expressing manner is also possible, as NIV, ie., the authorities were intent on arresting Jesus, but in a way that would not cause them any embarrassment.

apokteinwsin (apokteinw) aor. subj. "kill him" - they might kill him. Deliberative subjunctive.


gar "but" - for [they were saying]. More reason than cause; serving to introduce an explanation for their "guile"; "And this is what they said", Cassirer. This intention is evidenced in the choice of the imperfect verb elegon, "they were saying."

mh "not" - not. The sentence is elliptical, "we will not arrest him at the feast .....". Given that the negation mh is used in prohibitions, they may be saying "do not arrest him at the feast ....."

en + dat. "during [the feast]" - in [the feast, festival]. Probably temporal, as NIV, although a local sense is possible; "in the presence of the festival crowd", Jeremias. The authorities do not want Jesus arrested during the festival proper, the afternoon of 14 Nisan through to 21 Nisan, obviously due to the crowd, many of whom view Jesus at least as a prophet. Judas provides the opportunity to arrest Jesus at the commencement of 14 Nisan.

mhpote "or" - lest. This conjunction stands in for iJna mh + subj. (here with the fut. ind.) and so forms a negated purpose clause, "lest"; "It must not be during the festival, to make sure that (in order that) there is no uproar among the people", Cassirer.

tou laou (oV) gen. "the people" - [there will be a disturbance, tumult, confusion] of the people = crowd. The genitive may be adjectival, verbal, subjective, "by the crowd." Decker suggests, ablative, source / origin, "from among the crowd." "Because the people will riot", CEV.


ii] The anointing of Jesus, 3-9. The scene is a meal in Bethany at the home of Simon the Leper. His full name is given to distinguish him from the others named Simon in the gospel. We know nothing more about him, nor are we even sure if Jesus is staying with him, or is just having a meal at his home.

Having set the scene, Mark focuses on the woman and her act of love. She destroys the seal of the perfume bottle, indicating her intention to use all of its contents. The perfume is probably pistachio nut oil with a splash of spikenard essential oil. There is a ripple of disapproval - a grumble here and there, an unfriendly stare. Mark underlines their hisses, not so much to expose their hypocrisy, but rather to emphasize the woman's devotion. Her critics conclude that the oil is extremely valuable and could have been sold and used for a more legitimate purpose. Interestingly, Matthew says it was the disciples who reacted this way, while John says that it was Judas. Mark doesn't really specify, since his focus is on the woman.

Jesus defends her action, calling it a "good work", a righteous act. It is true, her loving kindness toward Jesus could have been redirected toward the poor, but she has seized the moment. In the midst of growing hostility toward Christ she expresses loving devotion. Her anointing of Jesus anticipates his approaching death, a death where the proper anointing of the body prior to burial will not be performed, given that Jesus will be treated as a common criminal.

Jesus then raises the stakes by telling those present, of whom most were probably disciples, that the significance of this unnamed woman's action is so profound that the story of her anointing of Jesus will be carried alongside the gospel, and in its telling it will serve as a reminder from her. Her story will define the "good work" necessary for salvation, namely, a dependence on the cross of Christ.

ontoV (eimi) gen. "while [he] was" - [he] being. The genitive participle and its genitive subject forms a genitive absolute construction, temporal, as NIV. So also "reclining", together serving to form two coordinate genitive absolute constructions. Interestingly, the presence of autou, "he", subject in agreement with the participle, a construction also paralleled in "he reclining", is the same autou, "he", of the main clause, "she poured [it on] his head", which means that technically the two participial constructions are not absolute.

en + dat. "in" - in [bethany]. Local, expressing space / sphere.

SimwnoV (wn onoV) "of a man known as Simon" - [in = at the house] of simon [the leper]. The genitive is adjectival, possessive. Simon is a common name and would often carry a distinguishing descriptor. Obviously, Simon is not a leper at present, as he would not be able to host a meal if he was. He may have been a leper, or the descriptor may be a nickname like scar-face. Then again, the home may just be known as Simon the Leper's home, Simon having long departed the scene. It is not unusual for homes in a small village to retain the name of the original inhabitants. (Of course, such a name would not feature in the real-estate sales brochure! Such a property would likely sell to someone from out of town. You can just hear the greeting, can't you? "Oh! you bought Simon the Leper's home!!!!" Oops - it's back on the market!)

katakeimenou (katakeimai) gen. part. "reclining at the table" - [he] reclining. The second genitive absolute participle; "while he was in Bethany in the house of Simon the Leper, [and] while he was reclining at table [having a meal], ....." The word indicates they were in an eating position, lying on cushions around a low coffee-style table. France suggests an evening meal before the commencement of the passover festival.

hlqen (ercomai) aor. "[a woman] came" - [a woman] came. John has Mary of Bethany as a guest, but Mark, in agreement with Luke, has the woman coming in from outside. See "Synoptics".

ecousa (ecw) pres. part. "with [an alabaster jar]" - having [an alabaster]. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "woman"; "a woman who had ...."

murou (on) gen. "of very expensive perfume" - of ointment. The first of four attributive modifiers which limit by describing alabastron, "alabaster jar." This, the first genitive, may be classified idiomatic / of content; "a jar full of ointment / containing ointment." Such a perfumed oil would be expensive, even up to a year's wage for a labourer.

nardou (oV) gen. "made of [pure] nard" - of [pure, genuine / liquid, expensive] spikenard. The genitive is adjectival, idiomatic / of material, limiting ointment; "made of spikenard", as NIV" Taylor suggests that the adjective pistikhV is "pure", but Cranfield says it is likely to refer to the base oil of the perfume, usually pistachio nut oil, used to dilute the spikenard and make it usable, so "liquid nard."

suntriyasa (suntribw) aor. part. "she broke" - having broken, crushed. Probably just an attendant circumstance participle, "a woman came ...... and she broke the jar ...", or temporal, "and after she broke the jar ..." Probably just broke the seal of the jar, but possibly something more dramatic, so Gundry: "breaking the flask makes it henceforth unusable and therefore dramatizes the completeness of the outpouring; not a drop is held back."

alabastron (oV) "alabaster jar" - the alabaster. A long tube-like flask of the type sometimes called a tear-bottle; it might have been made of alabaster, but more probably of glass", Shermon E Johnson.

kateceen (katacew) aor. + gen. "poured the perfume on" - she poured, poured down, poured over it. Anointing is a general courtesy performed for a guest, although this is more a drenching than an anointing. Jesus explains the anointing in terms of an anointing for death. There is every indication that the woman understands it in these terms. Matthew agrees with Mark on what part of the anatomy Jesus is anointed.

thV kefalhV (h) gen. "[his] head" - of the head [of him]. Genitive of direct object after the kata prefix verb "to pour over - "of what (head) the liquid is poured over", BAGD. Elliott argues that the anointing is messianic such that the woman is hailing Jesus as the King-Messiah, cf. 2 Kings 9:1-13, but it is usually understood as an anointing for death and burial, so Gundry, France, ...


de "-" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in the narrative.

tineV pro. "some of those present" - certain. Nominative subject of the verb to-be. Some of the disciples? Probably "some of the guests at the meal."

hsan .... aganaktounteV (aganaktew) pres. part. "were saying indignantly" - were being unwilling / angry, indignant. "Growling", Gundry. A periphrastic imperfect construction, possibly used to accentuate the duration of the action. The action "saying" is implied; "some of the guests were annoyed at what she had done", Barclay.

proV + acc. "to [one another]" - with/to [themselves] = inwardly. Here expressing association. "Were vexed / disturbed in themselves", or "commented / glanced indignantly one toward another."

eiV tiv + acc. "why" - to = for [what]. Here eiV expresses purpose + the interrogative tiv; "why?"; "for what reason, purpose?", BAGD. "What is the point", Barclay.

tou murou (on) gen. "[this waste] of perfume" - [this ruin] of the ointment. The genitive is usually treated as verbal, objective, but it could be taken as adjectival, attributed, "why this wasted perfume?" The context dictates that it is the perfume that is wasted, so "why this waste", Cassirer.

gegonen (ginomai) perf. "-" - become = taken place, happened. The perfect expresses a past act with ongoing consequences; "for what purpose has this waste occurred?"


gar "-" - for, because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why the anointing was so wasteful.

to muron (on) "it" - [this] ointment. Properly taken as nominative, thus functioning as the subject of the sentence, although read as accusative by TH and thus serving as the subject of the two infinitives which together serve as the subject of the sentence (a neuter noun has the same ending for both the nominative and accusative case).

praqhnai (pipraskw) aor. inf. "sold" - [was able] to be sold. The infinitives, "to be sold" and doqhnai,"to be given", are complementary, completing the sense of the verb "was able." "This perfume might have been sold", Moffatt.

epanw + gen. "for more than" - over, above, more than. Variant missing in some manuscripts probably due to not being present in John's account, cf., Metzger. In this case the "three hundred denarii" is not governed by this preposition.

dhnariwn triakosiwn gen. "a year's wages" - three hundred denarii. Genitive of measure / price. The NIV dynamic equivalent is better than "three hundred silver coins", CEV.

toiV ptwcoiV dat. adj. "to the poor" - [and to be given] to the poor. The adjective serves as a substantive, dative of indirect object after the verb "to give."

enebrimwnto (embrimaomai) imperf. "they rebuked [her] harshly" - [and] they were reproaching, warning, expressing anger toward. Probably in the sense of gestures of reproach and disapproval, along with verbal murmurings and hisses. The more generous the act the more guilty an onlooker feels, thus requiring guilt-dissipation, ie., speck removal.

auth/ dat. pro. "her" - her. Dative of direct object after the en prefix verb "to rebuke."


de "-" - but/and. Transitional, indicating a step in subject from the guests to Jesus; "but Jesus said."

afete (afihmi) aor. imp. "leave [her] alone" - [jesus said] leave, leave alone, leave someone alone. "let go, tolerate", BAGD. "Stop giving her a hard time", Boring.

kopouV (oV) "bothering" - [why do you cause] troubles, difficulties. Accusative direct object of the verb "to cause"; "why do you cause trouble for her?"; "Why distress her?", Barclay.

auth/ dat. pro. "her" - to her? Dative of indirect object / interest, disadvantage.

kalon ergon "[she has done] a beautiful thing" - [she has worked] a good, noble, worthy, work. The phrase "a good work" implies something more than a kindness. In Jewish circles, a good work was viewed by the rabbis as an honourable deed, done under God, of superior character to alms-giving. In Christian circles, it is "an act of Christian ministry that did not have the pietistic and moralistic flavour of being a do-gooder", Boring.

Given the context, it is likely that we have here a saving "good work", an outward expression of faith / reliance on the saving work of Christ on the cross, see v9. Her actions certainly do express self-giving love, but above all, are directed toward what Christ is about to do on the cross for her and the rest of broken humanity. It is for this reason that her actions go hand in hand with the communication of the gospel, serving as a reminder from her.

Of course, other interpretations are possible, eg., Danker suggests that Psalm 41 lies behind the incident. Christ represents the righteous suffering poor and the woman has recognized him and so anoints him as an act of love toward God's broken one; "she has done a beautiful deed / a noble act of love."

en "to [me]" - in, on [me]. Reflecting Aramaic usage, expressing reference / respect.


gar "-" - because. Introducing a causal clause explaining why they should leave her alone to perform her act of love, namely, "because you always have the poor with you ....." Jesus is raising the issue of time, not of compassion. Poverty will never cease and compassion toward the poor must never cease, but Jesus will not always be present in the flesh.

pantote adv. "always" - [you have] at all times. Temporal adverb; "You will always have the poor with you", CEV.

meq (meta) + gen. "with" - [the poor] with. Expressing association.

eJautwn ref. pro. "you" - yourselves. The 3rd. person used for 2nd.

eu\ poihsai "[you can] help" - [and you are able] to do good. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "you are able", while the adverb eu\ functions as an improper object. This colloquial use, "you did good", is only used here in the NT, but appears a number of times in the LXX, eg. eu\ se poihsw, "I will do good to you", Gen.32:9. "You will be able to do good to them whenever you wish", Cassirer.

autoiV dat. pro. "them" - to them. Dative of interest, advantage, "do good for them", although an accusative variant autouV exists to serve as the proper object.

oJtan + subj. "any time [you want]" - whenever [you wish]. Introducing an indefinite temporal clause. The reference to the poor is often used to justify ignoring their plight, but this is not Jesus' intention. They will always need our attention, but there will be occasions when other priorities will need to be addressed. This is one such occasion.

pantote adv. "[you will not] always [have me]" - [but/and me not] always [do you have]. Temporal adverb. An obvious reference to Jesus' departure.


oJ escen epoihsen "she did what she could" - what she had she did. The verb escen, "had", is probably taking the sense "was able" with the assumed infinitive poihsai; "what she was able to do she did." "She has done all that she had it in her power to do", Barclay.

murisai (murizw) aor. inf. "she poured perfume" - to anoint [the body of me]. The infinitive here is unwieldy and the clause compressed. It probably functions as an object complement of the assumed object "[my] death" of the main verb proelaben, "she has anticipated"; "she has anticipated my death, anointing my body with a view to my burial."

proelaben (prolambanw) aor. "beforehand" - she prepared beforehand, acted ahead of time, anticipated. Of taking action before it is necessary to do so, MM.

eiV "to prepare for" - to, toward. Here final, expressing purpose / end-view, "with a view to my burial", but possibly reference, "with respect to my burial."

entafiasmon (oV) "my burial" - the burial. Possibly the preparation for the burial (laying out the body), MM, although BAGD suggests the burial itself.


This verse raises a difficult question. In what why is the anointing linked to the preaching of the gospel? Jeremias suggests that the "gospel" referred to in this verse concerns "the proclamation of the final victory of God", while the preaching refers to the shout of the angel on the last day as he announces the victory. On that day her act of love will be recounted before the thrown of God and stand to her favour; "this deed of hers will also be recounted, as her memorial to me", Phillips. This is a very original interpretation and overcomes the nagging question as to why the anointing should be integrally linked to the gospel and recounted throughout the centuries. In the end, the notion that the anointing serves as a reminder to God for the woman's account is questionable. Gundry takes a straightforward approach to the words when he says "that alongside the gospel itself, what the woman has done will be talked about throughout the world with the result that she will be remembered." Boring suggests that the story "serves as a vehicle for the proclamation of the good news of God's saving act in Christ."

The sense will always be illusive, but if we take eiV to express purpose, and the genitive authV as subjective, then the sense may be that whenever the gospel is communicated throughout the world, this woman's visible act of faith in the substitutionary sacrifice of Jesus, will serve as (the purpose of) a reminder from her - a reminder that we need to do what she has done, namely, rest in faith on the cross of Christ. When our life is set on the cross, as Philip Yancey reminds us, there is nothing we can do to make God love us more, and nothing we can do to make him love us less.

amhn de legw uJmin "I tell you the truth" - truly i say to you. A statement used to reinforce the following words. "You may be sure", CEV.

oJpou ean + subj. "wherever" - wherever. Introducing an indefinite local clause.

eiV "throughout" - [the important news may be proclaimed = communicated] into [the whole world]. Local, here used instead of en, so "in the world", possibly distributive, "throughout the world."

kai "also" - and = also. Here adjunctive; "that which / what she herself / this one did will be spoken of also."

lalhqhsetai (lalew) fut. pas. "will [also] be told" - [what this woman did] will be spoken. "Will also be recounted", Phillips.

eiV "in" - to = for. Here final / telic, expressing purpose / end view, "with a view to", but possibly reference, "with respect to."

mnhmosunon "memory" - a reminder, memorial. "A reminder" in the sense of "an event in the past called into the present by its effects", Mann. Her act of love may serve as a reminder to God (Jeremias, see above), but better, serves as a reminder to us. "What she has done will be told too, and it will serve a reminder."

authV gen. pro. "of her" - of her. Usually taken as an objective genitive, Zerwick has "as a memorial to her"; "as a memorial for her", Marcus, who quotes numerous examples of this sense in funerary inscriptions. On the other hand, it could be a subjective genitive / ablative, source, where the actions of the woman will be spoken / preached to serve as (eiV, telic - purpose) a reminder from her. That she is unnamed better serves a role performed as an example. Her actions define the "good work" necessary for salvation, namely a recognition of / dependence on / devotion to the substitutionary death of Christ. This approach has much in its favour, although it is depreciated by Gundry.


iii] Judas Iscariot's betrayal of Jesus, v10-11. From the devotion of an unnamed woman, Mark takes us back to real life. The authorities are seeking to arrest Jesus secretly and one of his own disciples is looking for the best time and place for them to do their dirty deed. Mark doesn't tell us why Judas is out to get Jesus, although the offer of money points to a motive of greed, cf., Matt.26:15a.

kai "then" - and. Coordinative.

Iskariwq "Iscariot" - [judas] iscariot. An identifier for the man Judas, possibly a family name, but more likely of a place, "Judas, the man from the village of Karioth."

oJ ei|V "-" - the one. The substantive adjective "one", ei|V, is used for the general, tiV, "someone / a certain person." The article oJ, serving as a nominalizer, is absent in some manuscripts, increasing the indefinite nature of the phrase. Possibly even derogatory; "that person."

twn dwdeka gen. "of the twelve" - of the twelve. The genitive is adjectival, partitive; "that one (namely Judas), who was one of the twelve." The definite article underlines the one betrayer, Judas, as against the rest of the disciples.

iJna + subj. "to [betray]" - [went toward the chief priests] that. Introducing a final clause expressing purpose; "in order to deliver him over to them."

autoiV dat. pro. "to them" - [hand over, betray, deliver over him] to them. Dative of indirect object. "He went to the Chief Priests and offered to help them arrest Jesus", CEV.


oiJ de "they" - but/and they. The article could be taken with the participle "having heard", but then the resulting substantive sits awkwardly with the main verb "they rejoiced." So, it is likely that oiJ serves as the subject of the main verb and is used with de to indicate narrative transition, a change in subjects from Judas to the religious authorities.

akousanteV (akouw) aor. part. "to hear" - [they rejoiced, were glad] having heard. The participle is adverbial, best taken as temporal; "they were glad when they heard it.""

ephggeilanto (epaggellomai) aor. mid. "promised" - [and] promised. In the middle voice the verb "announce / proclaim" becomes "promise".

dounai (didwmi) aor. inf. "to give" - to give. The infinitive forms an object clause / dependent statement of indirect speech expressing what they "promised". There is no indication that Judas has asked for money, but rather that the authorities have offered it in response to their joy. They now have an opportunity to arrest Jesus before the commencement of the festival.

autw/ dat. pro. "him" - him [money]. Dative of indirect object; "give money to him."

kai "so" - and. Consecutive use here, as NIV, BDF 442 [2]; "and as a result."

ezhtei (zhtew) imperf. "he watched" - he was seeking, watching for. Judas was "working out / considering / thinking" how he might betray Jesus. The religious authorities were seeking an opportunity to arrest Jesus and Judas was seeking an opportunity to betray Jesus.

eukairwV adv. "opportunity" - conveniently, opportunely. Adverb of manner, although here more temporal, "an opportune time", LN. "Judas started looking for a good chance to betray Jesus", CEV.

pwV + subj. "to [hand him over]" - how [he might betray him]. The adverb pwV, with the deliberative subjunctive, forms an unstated interrogative clause; "how they might conveniently betray him", AV.


Mark Introduction.



[Pumpkin Cottage]