John

14:1-14

The Farewell Discourse, 13:1-17:26

iv] The way, the truth and the life

Synopsis

John continues his record of the farewell discourse covering chapters 13:1-17:26. Jesus has cleansed the apostolic community, washing their feet and seeing Judas off, and now he focuses on teaching his followers in light of his departure.

 
Teaching

Assurance, rather than sadness, is God's plan for his people. Jesus makes four points:

• He is leaving to prepare a home for his disciples, v1-4;

• He is the way to the Father, v5-7;

• He and the Father are one, v8-11;

• His "work" is the disciples' "work", v12-14.

 
Issues

i] Context: See 13:1-17.

 

ii] Structure: This passage, The way, the truth and the life, present as follows:

Love is shaped by the Spirit:

Introduction, v1-4:

"do not let your hears be troubled"

"if I go and prepare a place for you,

I will come back and take you to be with me."

Jesus is the way to God, v4-6;

"I am the way, the truth and the life."

Jesus is God incarnate, v7-11;

"I am in the Father and the Father is in me."

Empowered to love, v12-14;

"whoever believes in me will do the works I have been doing, ...

"because I am going to the Father."

Through the indwelling Spirit, v15-17;

The indwelling Spirit of Christ, v18-21;

The indwelling Father and Son, v22-24;

The Spirit will instruct you, v25-26;

Epilogue, v27-31.

"peace I leave with you ......"

 

iii] Introduction:

The subject of the cross, of Christ's glorification, was raised toward the end of chapter 13 and so chapter 14 begins with Jesus encouraging his disciples. They need not be worried since Jesus is preparing a place for them in heaven and will bring them into the presence of the Father. The intimacy of the relationship that exists between the Father and the Son will also be experienced by those who believe in the Son. This union will produce an abundance of "works", of deeds in fulfillment of Jesus' command to love one another. As the discourse continues, the enabling means for these "works" will be identified, namely the Spirit. It is oJti, "because", Jesus is going to the Father that the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, will come to the disciples reminding them of everything Jesus has promised.

 

What does Jesus mean in v 12 when he says that believers will not only do the works he has been doing but that "they will do even greater things than these"? The object is unstated, so presumably "greater works" than Jesus' works, but note the softening in NIV, REB etc. The sense of these words is open to some dispute. Obviously not "more", "more extensive", Lindars, nor "greater", in the sense of greater miracles than Jesus performed, more spectacular, or more supernatural (raising the dead is hard to beat!!!). Traditionally, "greater works than these" is understood to refer to conversions, "greater works mean more conversions", Ryle. Morris takes this line, so Westcott, Barrett. Schnackenburg argues that "missionary success" is a reasonable understanding, but observes that there is more to "the increasing flow of God's power into man's world" from Christ's going to be with the Father (and the consequent sending of the Spirit). Carson agrees, for when Jesus performed the Father's works their meaning was illusive and the results minimal, whereas the disciples, living in "an age of clarity and power introduced by Jesus' sacrifice and exaltation", perform the Father's works in the unrestrained power of the Spirit, eg., the conversion of 3,000 souls on the day of Pentecost is a classic new-age consequence. Brown agrees, making a particularly important observation: the "works" which the disciples will undertake are those which are promised them, particularly the "giving of life (through the offering of divine forgiveness) and judging" through gospel ministry (the Father's works for disciples). Given the context of the Farewell Discourse, the command to love may be the particular command / promise Jesus has in mind - the loving Christ becomes a loving community. As for the performance of messianic signs (the Father's works for Christ), in fulfillment of prophecy, for the people of Israel, these are not really an integral part of the disciples' mission agenda, particularly as the gospel has now moved from Israel to the Gentile world.

 

Composition: Unlike the synoptic gospels where the gospel writers are loath to interfere with the received tradition (probably oral and in Aramaic) and so make their point by the arrangement of that tradition, John writes from the perspective of Christ's glorification, from the perspective of his lifting up on the cross, ascension and the outpouring of his Spirit. So, what we have in Christ's farewell discourse, is not only Jesus' words to his disciples, but John's reflection on those words in light of the outpouring of the Spirit and the church's appreciation of their full import. This being the case, it is not possible to separate one from the other, together they are God's word to us.

 

Literary form: It has been argued that the themes raised in chapter 14 appear in chapter 13, but in reverse order. What we may have here is a chiastic literary structure where the points of an argument are stated and then restated in reverse order.

 

iv] Exposition: A simple exposition of this passage may be found in the linked pew-level Sermon Notes.

 
Text - 14:1

Assurance, v1-14: i] Jesus is preparing a home for his disciples, v1-4. The disciples are distressed. Jesus has just told them he is about to leave them. Peter certainly gets the message, claiming he is willing to defend Jesus, even give his life to that end. Yet, Peter's faith is fragile, and Jesus knows it. So, Jesus calls on his disciples to redouble their faith, redouble their reliance on God and the inevitable worth of his plan facilitated through Jesus. Jesus then explains why he must go. Jesus' departing will benefit the disciples because he is going to prepare an eternal home for them. Then, h aving prepared a place for his disciples, Jesus will return and take them to be with him in that special place.

mh tarassesqe (tarassw) pres. pas. imp. "do not let [your hearts] be troubled" - let not be troubled. This negation with the present imperative expresses, not a command to stop an action already commenced, but rather a command to not proceed with an action, so "don't allow yourselves to become troubled." The "trouble", "distress", is related to Jesus' statement that he is about to leave his disciples - "I am with you only a little longer." This "distress" shadows every one of us in that we live with the reality of an absent Christ.

hJ kardia (a) "hearts" - heart. The singular is Semitic idiom, expressed with the plural in English.

pisteuete (pisteuw) "trust / believe" - believe. The verb here may be either indicative or imperative. This has prompted three possible translations of the two uses of "believe" in this clause: i] Indicative/indicative, "you trust in God and you trust in me"; ii] Indicative/imperative, "do you believe in God, then believe also in me", Bultmann; iii] Imperative/imperative, so NIV. "Believe in God, and believe in me likewise", Cassirer. The present tense is durative, so possibly, "keep on believing in God, and keep on believing in me", Barclay.

kai "also" - and. Adjunctive, as NIV.

eiV "in [God]" - Spacial, expressing union with, so similar and interchangeable with en,"in".

 
v2

en + dat. "in [my Father's house] / [my Father's house has many rooms]" - Local, expressing space / sphere. The oikia/, "house, dwelling", is a permanent dwelling rather than an inn or hotel. The reference is to "heaven", certainly not "church", and conveys the idea of hospitality; "in heaven there are many rooms" / "there are many dwellings in heaven."

pollai adj. "many" - The sense being, "there is room enough for everyone", TNT.

monai (h) "rooms" - a place to live. The sense of this word is disputed, eg., some suggest "resting place" for the use of believers on the move in heaven, but "permanent dwelling" is to be preferred; "homes", Berkeley.

ei mh .... a]n "if it were not so, [I would have told you]" - if not. Introducing a conditional clause, 2nd class, expressing a condition contrary to fact, as NIV.

oJti "-" - that. Not found in some texts, but if accepted it produces either a dependent statement, or question in the last clause of the sentence, eg. "if it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you?" NRSV. Possibly causal, "because", although the sense is illusive; "were it not so I would have told you, because it is to prepare a place for you that I am going there", Cassirer. Possibly introducing indirect discourse, what Jesus would not have told them if it had not been true; "would I have told you that I am going to prepare a place for you?", TNT. The trouble is, we have no earlier reference of Jesus saying this to his disciples, so the conjunction probably introduces the content of what Jesus is now going to explain to them; "I wouldn't tell you this, unless it was true. I am going to prepare a place for each of you", CEV.

etoimasai (etoimazw) aor. inf. "to prepare" - The infinitive probably expresses purpose, "I am going in order to prepare a place for you." Carson notes that the preparation referred to is not the ordering of heaven to receive believers, but rather that it is "the cross and resurrection that prepares the place for Jesus' disciples."

uJmin dat. pro. "for you" - Dative of interest, advantage.

 
v3

ean + subj. "if [I go and prepare]" - Forming a conditional clause, 3rd class, where the stated condition in the "if" clause is a possibility; "if, as may be the case, .... then ....." Here obviously a probability, so much so that Brown proposes "when I go and prepare", cf. BAGD 210.

ercomai pres. "I will come back" - I am coming. The present tense is futuristic, expressing confidence in a future event, cf. BDF 323.. The return of Jesus is variously interpreted: i] the resurrection; ii] the coming of the Spirit; iii] the coming of Jesus to believers at their death; iv] the parousia, the second coming of Jesus. Other than [iii], all are referred to in these final discourses, but presumably [iv] is intended here.

proV + acc. "[I will take you] to be with [me]" - [I will take you] to [myself]. Expressing purpose, possibly association, "take you along with me." Possibly; "take you along with me to my home", Humphries.

iJna + subj. "that [you also may be where I am]" - that [where I am you also may be]. Possibly forming a purpose clause, "in order that", so Morris, even epexegetic (explanatory), what Jesus means by "I will receive you to myself", so Barrett, but more likely a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that"; "I will come back and take you with me. Then we will be together", CEV.

hJte (eimi) subj. "you may [also] be" - may be.

 
v4

Note the longer variant: "You know the place where I am going, and you know the way", read in P66. The variant certainly expresses the intended sense of "you know the way where I go." The variant is probably not original, but is a nice example of early commentary.

oidate (oida) perf. "you know" - you have known. A stative verb read as present tense.

 
v5

ii] Jesus is the way to the Father, v5-7. Thomas, "the one called the twin" (I had a friend who was nicknamed "brother" by his siblings, a nickname later used by his friends, so "twin" is not so strange), often displayed in John's gospel as someone with an inquisitive mind (so "doubting Thomas" is somewhat harsh. So also Barrett's description of him being "dull"), is unsure about "the place" where Jesus is going, and so obviously is unsure about the way there. He speaks for all the disciples. Jesus goes on to explain that the destination is heaven and he is the roadway there, the roadway to God, the roadway to the Father, in that he reveals the truth about God in the gospel, and in that he gives life to those who believe through his death, resurrection and eternal reign.

autw/ dat. pro. "[said] to him" - Dative of indirect object.

pou "where" - Local particle.

pwV "how" - Interrogative particle.

eidenai (oida) perf. inf. "[can] we know" - [are we able] to know. Again the stative verb is read as a present tense. The infinitive is complementary, completing the sense of the verb "we are able."

thn oJdon (oV) "the way" - "The way to get there", TEV - the way to get to this hospitable place / heaven.

 
v6

autw/ dat. "[Jesus] answered" - [Jesus said] to him. Dative of direct object.

egw eimi "I am" - Always a cue to a possible self declaration of deity by Jesus, so Jesus may be saying he is a divine pathway to heaven. The other extreme is to treat the phrase, "I am the way", as a simile, "I am like a roadway."

hJ odoV "the way" - Given the context, and particularly the next sentence, Jesus is "the way to heaven" = "the way to God/Father." So, in answering Thomas' question, Jesus states that he himself is the means of getting to this hospitable place / heaven / God.

kai "and [the truth] and [the life]" - Coordinative, "and", or epexegetic, "that is". The claim that Jesus is "the pathway / like a pathway" is the key statement (repeated in v4, 5 and 6), with truth and life subordinate statements. This is not easily expressed in Greek, but it is likely that the coordinate clause here translates a Semitic structure where the first noun governs the next two; "I am the way of truth and life", Carson. It is possible that kai serves to identify this fact, functioning epexegetically (see also Barrett, Lindars), setting up an explanation of the two elements that enable the pathway to function as a means of reaching God. Jesus possess divine truth/revelation, the gospel, a saving message, and he possesses life, resurrection life, through his life-giving sacrifice. So, "I am the way to God/Father, in that I reveal the truth about God, and in that I give life to those who believe." Taking "the way" as the primary predicate noun is supported by many European commentators, but many English/American commentators still follow the traditional line where "the way is directed toward a goal that is the truth and/or the life", Brown, even a constriction to something like "the true way of life", Kostenberger, or even just treating the three words as coequal: "I am the way, and I am the truth, and I am the life." See Brown for a summary of positions.

oudeiV ercetai (ercomai) pres. "no one comes [to the Father]" - is coming. The present tense is most likely gnomic, expressing a universal truth; "no one ever come to the Father except through me." The exclusivity expressed here by Jesus probably applies to both his truth and his life. The truth that Jesus conveys does not deny either natural revelation, or the revelation of God's will, given up to this point in time, to the people of Israel. The point is that Jesus is the final and complete revelation of the divine will. If we reject this revelation and rely on either a natural understanding of the divine, or an Old Testament understanding of the divine, then we will fail to access Christ's saving truth. Also, the life that Jesus conveys rests on a perfect and acceptable sacrifice to God. If we rely on some other sacrifice (life-giving means, eg. transcendental meditation, etc.) then we will fail to access Christ's life-giving sacrifice.

ei mh "except" - except. Expressing a contrast by designating an exception: "the only way for anyone to come to the Father is through me", Barclay.

dia + gen. "through [me]" - through, by means of. Instrumental, expressing means; "except by means of me", Moffatt.

 
v7

iii] Jesus and the Father are one, v7-11. The disciples know Jesus, and because they know Jesus, through their new-birth in the Spirit, they will know God intimately, know him as if they had met him personally. The desire of any religious person is to see God and so Philip jumps at the possibility. Jesus' response is touched with sadness. Jesus has been with his disciples for nearly three years and yet Philip has still not realized that Jesus' whole ministry has been a revelation of the Father. What the disciples need to understand is that there is a unique union between the Father and the Son, such that the teachings of Jesus, as well as the miraculous signs that Jesus has performed, are the Father's words and deeds, just as much as they are Jesus' words and deeds. If the disciples can't get their head around these words and be convinced by them, then at least they need to focus on the miraculous signs that Jesus has performed and learn from their significance. The lesson, of course, is simple, to know Jesus is to know the Father.

ei + ind. "if" - Variant readings produce either a 1st. class condition (eg. P66), or 2nd. class condition, contrary-to-fact (ei + past tense indicative of "know" in the protasis and an + ind. in the apodosis) - NIV opts for 2nd class; "If you really knew me (which sadly, you don't), you would know my Father as well." Yet, it makes more sense to go with a 1st. class condition where the condition is assumed to be true; "if, as is the fact, you have come to know me, then you shall know (fut.) my Father also", cf. Metzger.

egnwkate (ginwskw) perf. pl. "[if] you really knew [me]" - you have known. The "you" is plural indicating that Jesus is now addressing all the disciples. The NIV "really knew" serves to express the contrary-to-fact nature of a 2nd class condition.

apo arti "from now on" - from now. Temporal; "from henceforth." Probably referring to Jesus' exaltation / his lifting up on the cross, even possibly his coming again at Pentecost, rather than just this moment in the upper room. Still, the immediacy of the experience needs to be underlined for the reader; "from this time onwards, you do know him and indeed have seen him", Cassirer.

ginwskete (ginwskw) pres. ind. (possibly imp. so Knox). "you do know [him]" - you know. The verse is a touch too concise so probably best filled out: "since you know me, from now on you are going to know the Father." "Knowing" and "seeing" God are qualities of religious experience beyond the usual, a "revolution in both religious experience and theological understanding" says Morris.

 
v8

deixon (deicnumi) aor. imp. "show" - show, reveal. It does seem that Phillip has misunderstood the nature of Jesus' promised revelation of the Father and asks to see the Father with his own eyes. He has certainly yet to realize that "it is God the only Son, who is close to the father's heart, who has made him known", 1:18. None-the-less, Phillip does express "the universal longing of the religious man", Barrett. "let us see the Father", Cassirer.

hJmin dat. pro. "to us [the Father]" - Dative of indirect object.

arkei (arkew) pres. "that will be enough" - it is enough, sufficient. "We ask no more", REB.

hJmin dat. "for us" - to us. Dative of interest, advantage.

 
v9

ouk egnokaV (ginwskw) perf. "don't you know me" - you have not known. Again "know" here is stronger than just "recognize/perceive", so it's a bit weak to say "have you still not realized who I am?" Barclay.

tasoutw/ gronw/ dat. "even after ...... such a long time" - so long a time. Dative of time. Of course, the dative is used for a point in time and here duration is obviously intended. A variant accusative exists, being correct grammar, but as the easier reading it is not widely accepted.

meq (meta) + gen. "with" - Expressing association.

uJmwn gen. pl. pro. "you" - The "you" is plural, so Jesus is saying "I have been with all of you for these three years and yet you (Phillip) don't yet realize who I am[?]"

oJ eJwrakwV (oJraw) perf. part. "anyone who has seen [me]" - the one having seen. The participle serves as a substantive. Usually translated as an indefinite relative clause, so NIV; "whoever has seen me", Williams. The clause is conditional, although an "if anyone has seen me" always expresses uncertainty in English, so "to have seen me is to have seen the Father", Barclay.

pwV "how [can you say]?" - Interrogative particle, here expressing surprise.

 
v10

ou pisteueiV (pisteuw) pres. "don't you believe" - The negation ou in a question expects a positive answer. Given Jesus' instruction to his disciples over the last few years, they would surely understand Jesus' relationship to the Father, but of course, they don't fully understand. Note the interesting shift from "know/perceive" to "believe". It is likely that both words are close in their meaning. "Know" is certainly stronger than just "recognize", while "believe" involves resting on what is recognized. More can be said, see "believe" v11. "You are convinced, are you not, that I am in the Father and the Father is in me?"

oJti "that" - Here introducing a dependent statement of perception expressing what they (Phillip +) should believe.

en + dat. "[I am] in [the Father and the Father is] in [me]" - Local, sphere, expressing incorporative union. Phillip would surely, by now, rest on the knowledge that "the words and deeds of Jesus are like a revelation from God", Morris. He should believe this much at least, but of course, Jesus is taking the relationship of the Father to the Son a step further. The preposition "in", supported by "living in me" (Gk. "abiding in me") implies something stronger than Jesus functioning as the divine agent of revelation, which of course, he is. What we have here is "unique sonship language", Carson. Certainly not an absorption of the divine, a mystical union, but rather a metaphysical union. "The reality is greater than human language can express, but that to which it points is sufficiently clear: in the depths of the being of God there exists a koinonia, a "fellowship", between the Father and the Son that is beyond all compare, a unity whereby the speech and action of the Son are that of the Father in him", Beasley-Murray.

ap (apo) + gen. "[not just my own]" - from [myself I do not speak]. Expressing source / origin. Although John describes the relationship of Jesus with the Father in terms of "a reciprocal formula of immanence", Schnackenburg, the union is expressed as if it is not fully reciprocal, ie. the words (the truth, the divine revelation) that Jesus communicates are the Father words, not visa-versa (see below).

de "rather" - but, and. Here probably introducing a complementary truth. The words of Jesus are the Father words, "and in the same way", the works of Jesus are the Father's works.

menwn (menw) pres. part. "living in me" - abiding, remaining, continuing. The participle is adjectival, attributive, limiting "Father", usually expressed as a relative clause; "the Father who abides in me, ..." Possibly in the sense "the Father who is permanently (constantly) in me", Bauer.

autou gen. pro. "[is doing] his [work]" - Variant nominative, either autoV poiei ta erga, or poiei ta erga autoV producing "he does the works", or he "does the works himself." It is an interesting idea that Jesus' works (as with his words) are actually the Father's works. One is tempted to say that Jesus does the works on behalf of the Father, but this could have easily been expressed in the Gk., but wasn't, and in any case, moves us back to the envoy model. Maybe it is just a matter of attribution, of deference within the Godhead, given that the Son always glorifies the Father, and Father always glorifies the Son.

ta erga "the works" - In John's gospel the word is used for "the signs" (miracles) - powerful revelatory signs. "They proceed from the Father and reveal what the Father is like", Morris. See below.

 
v11

pisteuete pres. imp. "believe [me]" - "Believe" is used here in the sense of "be convinced" - "accept the full significance of this truth, namely that, ....", cf. Barrett. Not, "believe in me when I say", not even "believe my word", Torrey, but "believe that what I have just said (summarized in the next clause ["I am in the Father and the Father is in me"] is true", Carson. English readers are often misled by the word "believe". The disciples do "believe" in Jesus, in the sense of having put their faith in him (not the sense of "believe" here) and they do "believe / know / acknowledge" (intellectual assent) Jesus' teachings, including his special relationship with the Father, but their faith and knowledge is limited. The disciples are not fully aware of the unique nature of the relationship between the Father and the Son such that they do not understand that having known Jesus, they now know the Father.

moi dat. pro. "me" - in me. Dative of direct object, possibly reference, "believe, with reference to me, when I say ...", so "believe me", although not read in P66. The sentence makes better sense without the pronoun, although this would be a good reason for a copyist to drop it.

oJti "when I say that" - [believe me] that [I in the Father and the Father in me]. Introducing an object clause / dependent statement of perception, expressing what they should believe.

en + dat. "[I am] in [the Father]" - See en above.

ei de mh "or at least" - but if not. Introducing a 1st. class conditional clause, for argument sake; "if, as is likely the case, ..... then ...." If the disciples can't get their head around the words that define the unique relationship that exists between the Father and the Son, and this is likely the case, then at the very least they can draw something of this truth by thoughtfully considering the significance of Jesus' signs (miracles), signs which themselves reveal this unique relationship.

pisteuete "believe" - "Be convinced", as above. Variant "me" exists, as with the first use of "believe" in this verse - an example of assimilation, so Metzger.

dia + acc. "on the evidence of" - [but if not, believe] because of, on account of [the works themselves]. Causal.

 
v12

iv] Jesus' "work" is the disciples' "work", v12-14. As for the works he does, Jesus tells his disciples that they will do even greater works for the Father. Of course, Jesus is the one who has made this possible through his death and resurrection. With the sending of the Spirit the disciples will bring life to a dying world. And as for getting the Father's works done, a disciple need only ask. Under the powerful authority of Jesus ("in my name"), Jesus himself will supply all the resources necessary to complete the task assigned to his disciples. Given the context, the "work" is to love one another.

amhn amhn lew uJmin "I tell you the truth" - An introductory formula, used by Jesus when making another/new significant point. "I am telling you a solemn truth."

oJ pisteuwn pres. part. "anyone who has faith [in me]" - the one having faith. The participle serves as a substantive. Here "belief/faith" "in/into" the person of Jesus (expressing "personal commitment", Morris), as indicated by the presence of the preposition eiV "to/into". Rendered as an indefinite relative clause which may be expressed in English as a conditional sentence, "If anyone believes in me he will ....", Barclay.

kakeinoV pro. "-" - that one also, also he [will do]. This emphatic pronoun fixes attention upon the one who is to do the works that Jesus does, so Westcott.

ta erga "what" - the works. For Jesus, these were the sign-miracles, "acts in which the power and character of God are made known", Barrett. Yet, more specifically, they are God's works, v10, such that as Jesus does the works of God, so also will Jesus' disciples now do God's works. So, not necessarily "the same works as I do myself", Cassirer, but more generally, "will do the works that I do", NAB, ie. God's works.

toutwn gen. pro. "[he will do even greater things] than these]" - [even greater] of these [will he do]. The genitive is ablative, of comparison; "greater than these."

oJti "because" - that. Here causal, as NIV. Presumably, it is because Jesus goes to the Father that he is able to, with the Father, send the Spirit to empower "the greater works than these."

poreuomai pres. "I am going" - am going. The present tense is futuristic, expressing certainty in a future event.

 
v13

poihsw fut. "I will do" - "I shall bring it about", Barclay.

ti an + subj. "whatever [you ask]" - This construction is non-specific, expressing a generalization in the form of an indefinite relative clause. Such generalizations do not negate the more specific statements of scripture. Prayer requests do have a defined limit, namely, "according to his will", 1Jn.5:14, and even here, "in my name."

aithshte (aitew) aor. subj. "you ask" - P75 reads a present tense giving a durative sense. Presumably it is "ask the Father in my name", although this is not stated.

en tw/ onomati (a atoV) "in my name" - A very debatable term. In a general sense "the name" represents the person, so the request is made in accord with the person of Jesus, or as Augustine put it, "in accord with Christ's character." Yet, it is very likely that the "anything" is limited to requests made "under the authority of Jesus", ie. based on a promise, or command of Jesus. The phrase "in the name", when used of healings, etc., seems very likely to express "under the authority of", even "under the authoritative power of", cf. 10:25, 14:26, 17:11, 20:31, and this sense would surely apply here. So then, Jesus is offering his support in the performance of those works that the Father has commissioned Jesus' disciples to perform.

iJna + subj. "so that" - that. Probably forming a final clause expressing purpose, "in order that", but a consecutive clause expressing result, "with the result that", is not impossible. Again, the request must obviously be according to the will of the Father since the answer to the prayer, as to its purpose, is the glory of the Father.

doxasqh/ (doxazw) aor. pas. sub. "may bring glory" - may be glorified. "So that people may see how wonderful the Father is", TH.

en to/ uiJw/ "the Son [may bring glory] to [the Father]" - in the Son. Presumably the prep + dat. is instrumental, as NIV (following Phillips!!), "so that the Father may be glorified by the Son"; "through the Son", Williams. None-the-less, the majority of translators opt for a local sense, "in the Son."

 
v14

This verse is omitted in many texts. That it is repetitious, grammatically awkward, and seemingly illogical (how does one ask Jesus in his name?), possibly indicate that it is a later addition to the text.

ean + subj. "-" - if [you ask]. Introducing a conditional sentence, 3rd class, where the condition stated in the "if" clause has the possibility of coming true; "if, as my be the case, .... then ....."

ti "anything" - An indefinite anything, something. As noted above, the "ask anything" offer does come with conditions, it's just that the fine print is not always added. Here, of course, "in my name" sets limits for our requests.

en tw/ onomati mou "in my name" - in the name of me. Asking in Jesus' name is not illogical if "in my name" means "under my powerful authority."

poihsw (poiew) fut. "I will do it" - Note, Jesus states that he will answer the prayer; he will deal with it personally. Note also it is sometimes "will give", cf., 16:23, rather than "will do", but obviously there is no difference between the two. "I shall bring it about", Cassirer.

 

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